A distributed database system allows applications to access data from local and remote databases. In a homogenous distributed database system. each database is an Oracle Database. In a heterogeneous distributed database system. at least one of the databases is not an Oracle Database. Distributed databases use a client/server architecture to process information requests.
This section contains the following topics:Homogenous Distributed Database Systems
A homogenous distributed database system is a network of two or more Oracle Databases that reside on one or more machines. Figure 29-1 illustrates a distributed system that connects three databases: hq. mfg. and sales. An application can simultaneously access or modify the data in several databases in a single distributed environment. For example, a single query from a Manufacturing client on local database mfg can retrieve joined data from the products table on the local database and the dept table on the remote hq database.
For a client application, the location and platform of the databases are transparent. You can also create synonyms for remote objects in the distributed system so that users can access them with the same syntax as local objects. For example, if you are connected to database mfg but want to access data on database hq. creating a synonym on mfg for the remote dept table enables you to issue this query:
In this way, a distributed system gives the appearance of native data access. Users on mfg do not have to know that the data they access resides on remote databases.
Figure 29-1 Homogeneous Distributed Database
An Oracle Database distributed database system can incorporate Oracle Databases of different versions. All supported releases of Oracle Database can participate in a distributed database system. Nevertheless, the applications that work with the distributed database must understand the functionality that is available at each node in the system. A distributed database application cannot expect an Oracle7 database to understand the SQL extensions that are only available with Oracle Database.Distributed Databases Versus Distributed Processing
The terms distributed database and distributed processing are closely related, yet have distinct meanings. There definitions are as follows:
A set of databases in a distributed system that can appear to applications as a single data source.
The operations that occurs when an application distributes its tasks among different computers in a network. For example, a database application typically distributes front-end presentation tasks to client computers and allows a back-end database server to manage shared access to a database. Consequently, a distributed database application processing system is more commonly referred to as a client/server database application system.
Distributed database systems employ a distributed processing architecture. For example, an Oracle Database server acts as a client when it requests data that another Oracle Database server manages.Distributed Databases Versus Replicated Databases
The terms distributed database system and database replication are related, yet distinct. In a pure (that is, not replicated) distributed database, the system manages a single copy of all data and supporting database objects. Typically, distributed database applications use distributed transactions to access both local and remote data and modify the global database in real-time.
This book discusses only pure distributed databases.
The term replication refers to the operation of copying and maintaining database objects in multiple databases belonging to a distributed system. While replication relies on distributed database technology, database replication offers applications benefits that are not possible within a pure distributed database environment.
Most commonly, replication is used to improve local database performance and protect the availability of applications because alternate data access options exist. For example, an application may normally access a local database rather than a remote server to minimize network traffic and achieve maximum performance. Furthermore, the application can continue to function if the local server experiences a failure, but other servers with replicated data remain accessible.
Oracle Database Advanced Replication for more information about Oracle Database replication features
Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for information about Oracle Streams, another method of sharing information between databasesHeterogeneous Distributed Database Systems
In a heterogeneous distributed database system, at least one of the databases is a non-Oracle Database system. To the application, the heterogeneous distributed database system appears as a single, local, Oracle Database. The local Oracle Database server hides the distribution and heterogeneity of the data.
The Oracle Database server accesses the non-Oracle Database system using Oracle Heterogeneous Services in conjunction with an agent. If you access the non-Oracle Database data store using an Oracle Transparent Gateway, then the agent is a system-specific application. For example, if you include a Sybase database in an Oracle Database distributed system, then you need to obtain a Sybase-specific transparent gateway so that the Oracle Database in the system can communicate with it.
Alternatively, you can use generic connectivity to access non-Oracle Database data stores so long as the non-Oracle Database system supports the ODBC or OLE DB protocols.
Other than the introductory material presented in this chapter, this book does not discuss Oracle Heterogeneous Services. See Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Administrator's Guide for more detailed information about Heterogeneous Services.Heterogeneous Services
Heterogeneous Services (HS) is an integrated component within the Oracle Database server and the enabling technology for the current suite of Oracle Transparent Gateway products. HS provides the common architecture and administration mechanisms for Oracle Database gateway products and other heterogeneous access facilities. Also, it provides upwardly compatible functionality for users of most of the earlier Oracle Transparent Gateway releases.Transparent Gateway Agents
For each non-Oracle Database system that you access, Heterogeneous Services can use a transparent gateway agent to interface with the specified non-Oracle Database system. The agent is specific to the non-Oracle Database system, so each type of system requires a different agent.
The transparent gateway agent facilitates communication between Oracle Database and non-Oracle Database systems and uses the Heterogeneous Services component in the Oracle Database server. The agent executes SQL and transactional requests at the non-Oracle Database system on behalf of the Oracle Database server.
Your Oracle-supplied gateway-specific documentation for information about transparent gatewaysGeneric Connectivity
Generic connectivity enables you to connect to non-Oracle Database data stores by using either a Heterogeneous Services ODBC agent or a Heterogeneous Services OLE DB agent. Both are included with your Oracle product as a standard feature. Any data source compatible with the ODBC or OLE DB standards can be accessed using a generic connectivity agent.
The advantage to generic connectivity is that it may not be required for you to purchase and configure a separate system-specific agent. You use an ODBC or OLE DB driver that can interface with the agent. However, some data access features are only available with transparent gateway agents.Client/Server Database Architecture
A database server is the Oracle software managing a database, and a client is an application that requests information from a server. Each computer in a network is a node that can host one or more databases. Each node in a distributed database system can act as a client, a server, or both, depending on the situation.
In Figure 29-2. the host for the hq database is acting as a database server when a statement is issued against its local data (for example, the second statement in each transaction issues a statement against the local dept table), but is acting as a client when it issues a statement against remote data (for example, the first statement in each transaction is issued against the remote table emp in the sales database).
Figure 29-2 An Oracle Database Distributed Database System
A client can connect directly or indirectly to a database server. A direct connection occurs when a client connects to a server and accesses information from a database contained on that server. For example, if you connect to the hq database and access the dept table on this database as in Figure 29-2. you can issue the following:
This query is direct because you are not accessing an object on a remote database.
In contrast, an indirect connection occurs when a client connects to a server and then accesses information contained in a database on a different server. For example, if you connect to the hq database but access the emp table on the remote sales database as in Figure 29-2. you can issue the following:
This query is indirect because the object you are accessing is not on the database to which you are directly connected.
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Distributed Database Systems
A.ddis on W.es ley | ISBN-10: 0201544008 | 424 Pages | PDF | 17 MB
Distributed database systems have now come of age with the announcement of several commercial products (acle, Ingres, Multi-Star) which meet the urgent need for integration of heterogeneous collections of data. This book adopts a practical approach, reviewing the fundamentals of database technology and developments in data communications (including standards) before reviewing the principles of distributed DB systems. It includes case studies of the leading products.
Distributed Database Systems
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Distributed Database Management Systems: A Practical Approach
This ebook addresses concerns associated to managing information throughout a dispensed database machine. It’s distinctive as a result of it covers traditional database concept and present analysis, explaining the difficulties in offering a unified consumer interface and world information dictionary. The e-book provides implementers steerage on hiding discrepancies throughout techniques and growing the semblance of a single repository for customers. It additionally contains three pattern frameworks—carried out the use of J2SE with JMS, J2EE, and Microsoft .Web—that readers can use to learn to put into effect a disbursed database administration device. IT and building teams and pc sciences/tool engineering graduates will to find this information useful.
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Distributed Relational Database Architecture™ (DRDA®) is a set of protocols that permits multiple local and remote database systems and application programs, to work together. Any combination of relational database management products that use DRDA can be connected to form a distributed relational database management system. DRDA coordinates communication between systems by defining what can be exchanged and how it must be exchanged.
DB2® for z/OS® Distributed Data Facility (DDF) is a built-in component which provides the connectivity to and from other servers or clients over the network. DDF is a full-function DRDA compliant transaction monitor which, equipped with thread pooling and connection management, can support very large networks. Different z/OS workload management priorities can be assigned to different, user-specified classes of DDF-routed application work.
In this IBM® Redbooks® publication we describe how to set up your DDF environment, and how to deploy the DDF capabilities in different configurations, including how to develop applications that access distributed databases.
We also describe a set of more advanced features, such as thread pooling and high availability distributed configurations, in a DB2 data sharing environment, as well as the traces available to you to do performance monitoring and problem determination.
In summary, we show how a high-volume, highly available transactional application can be successfully implemented with a DB2 for z/OS data server accessed by all types of application servers or clients running on the same or different platform.
Part 1. Distributed database architecture and configurations
Chapter 1. Architecture of DB2 distributed systems
Chapter 2. Distributed database configurations
Part 2. Setup and configuration
Chapter 3. Installation and configuration
Chapter 4. Security
Part 3. Distributed applications
Chapter 5. Application programming
Chapter 6. Data sharing
Part 4. Performance and problem determination
Chapter 7. Performance analysis
Chapter 8. Problem determination
Appendix A. DRDA related maintenance
Appendix B. The TRADE workload
Appendix C. Sample applications
Appendix D. Sample programs for performance analysis
This book addresses issues related to managing data across a distributed database system. It is unique because it covers traditional database theory and current research, explaining the difficulties in providing a unified user interface and global data dictionary. Design, transaction management and concurrency control are different for distributed databases, as are replication control, fault tolerance, and distributed query optimization. The book gives implementer guidance on hiding discrepancies across systems and creating the illusion of a single repository for users. The book also includes three sample frameworks--implemented using J2SE with JMS, J2EE, and Microsoft .Net--that readers can use to learn how to implement a DDBMS and explore some of the implementation issues. Each framework works with a variety of DBMSs and includes an example extension.
Data Distribution Alternatives.
Failure and Commit Protocols.
Data Modeling Overview.
Logical Data Models.
Traditional DDBE Architectures.
New DDBE Architectures.
DDBE Platform Requirements.
The JMS Starter Kit.
The J2EE Platform.
The J2EE Starter Kit.
The Microsoft .NET Platform.
The DNET Starter Kit.
Primary markets: computer sciences/software engineering graduate schools teaching Distributed DBMS, Database Integration, Network Databases, Federated Databases and Multi-Databases.
Secondary market: Computer sciences / software engineering upper-division undergraduate students, consultants. Opportunities for international sales in academia and industries outside US exist for the same groups mentioned above.
Saeed K. Rahimi is an associate professor at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota, where he has taught courses in database management systems, data modeling, database administration and distributed databases. He has been a consultant in the areas of database design and implementation, working with clients such as Microsoft, the US Department of Defense, and Allstate Insurance.
Frank S. Haug is an adjunct professor at the University of St. Thomas, where he has taught graduate courses in distributed database management systems and data warehousing. He has 23 years of experience in database design and administration, working across many technology platforms, DBMSs, and programming languages.
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The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…
Descriptors: Library Services, College Libraries, Access to Information, Electronic Journals
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The Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS) collects data on Title IV institutions. The Delta Cost Project (DCP) integrated data from multiple IPEDS survey components into a public-use longitudinal dataset. The DCP Database was the basis for dozens of journal articles and a series of influential policy reports. Unfortunately, a flaw in…
Descriptors: Databases, Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Higher Education
Brightenburg, Cindy – Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 2016
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Grabowsky, Adelia – Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, 2015
The field of communication disorders encompasses the health science disciplines of both speech-language pathology and audiology. Pertinent literature for communication disorders can be found in a number of databases. Librarians providing information literacy instruction may not have the time to cover more than a few resources. This study develops…
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A lot of students learn spreadsheet management before database management. Their similarities can cause a lot of negative effects when learning database management. In this article, we consider these similarities and explain what can cause problems. First, we analyse the basic concepts such as table, database, row, cell, reference, etc. Then, we…
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Distributed Database Systems discusses the recent and emerging technologies in the field of distributed database technology. The material is up-to-date, highly readable, and illustrated with numerous practical examples. The mainstream areas of distributed database technology, such as distributed database design, distributed DBMS architectures, distributed transaction management, distributed concurrency control, deadlock handling in distributed systems, distributed recovery management, distributed query processing and optimization, data security and catalog management, have been covered in detail. The popular distributed database systems, SDD-1 and R*, have also been included.Reviews
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9788131743089 813174308X 8131727181 9788131727188 1282652524 9781282652521
Distributed database systems/Chhanda Ray; Delhi. Pearson. Dorling Kindersley (India), ©2009.
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This market-leading text serves as a valued reference for those who will interact with databases in future courses and careers. Renowned for its accessible, comprehensive coverage, it provides a solid introduction to database systems and applications.
Extensive coverage includes:
Advanced object database, mining, XML, and security.
Advanced modeling discussions in the areas of active, temporal, and spatial databases.
Physical database design and tuning.
Current database application areas of GIS, genome, and digital libraries.
The relational approach, including modeling, design, algebra and calculus, and query languages.
Both traditional ER model and UML in data modeling material.
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Instructor Solutions Manual - New
Online Lab ManualNew to This Edition
The following key features have been added in the sixth edition:
The following are key features of the book:
Organization of the Sixth Edition
There are significant organizational changes in the sixth edition, as well as improvement to the individual chapters. The book is now divided into eleven parts as follows:
Part 1: Introduction to Databases
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