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Html 4 For The World Wide Web - Isbn:9780201354935

Category: Computers

  • Book Title: HTML 4 for the World Wide Web
  • ISBN 13: 9780201354935
  • ISBN 10: 0201354934
  • Author: Elizabeth Castro
  • Category: Computers
  • Category (general): Computers
  • Publisher: Peachpit Press
  • Format & Number of pages: 384 pages, book
  • Synopsis: Creating Other Kinds of Links You are not limited to creating links to other Web pages. You can create a link to any URL — FTP sites, files that you want visitors to be able to download, newsgroups, and messages. You can even create a link to ...

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ISBN: 9780201354935 - HTML 4 For The World Wide Web, Fourth Edition - OPENISBN Project: Download Book Data

HTML 4 For The World Wide Web, Fourth Edition

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the lingua franca of the Web, and like any language, it's constantly evolving. That's why Elizabeth Castro has written HTML 4 for the World Wide Web, Fourth Edition: Visual QuickStart Guide. an update to her blockbuster guide to HTML 4. You'll find all the concise, practical advice--and fun examples--that made the first edition a worldwide bestseller, plus entirely new coverage of debugging, JavaScript, and using tables for page layout, and an expanded section on Cascading Style Sheets.

Like all the books in the Visual QuickStart series, this one breaks even the most complex tasks into easy-to-follow steps illustrated with hundreds of screenshots and the actual code. The book presumes no prior knowledge of HTML, making it the perfect introduction for beginners. But its tabbed format and info-packed appendixes (on special HTML characters and Web-safe colors, for example) also make it a handy and indispensable reference for those who build Web pages for a living. Find out why Amazon called the previous edition a "dream guide" to HTML.

Searching Book Reviews.




HTML for the World Wide Web by Elizabeth Castro

HTML for the World Wide Web (Visual QuickStart Guides)

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the lingua franca of the Web, and like any language, it's constantly evolving. That's why Elizabeth Castro has written HTML 4 for the World Wide Web, Fourth Edition: Visual QuickStart Guide, an update to herMore HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the lingua franca of the Web, and like any language, it's constantly evolving. That's why Elizabeth Castro has written HTML 4 for the World Wide Web, Fourth Edition: Visual QuickStart Guide, an update to her blockbuster guide to HTML 4. You'll find all the concise, practical advice--and fun examples--that made the first edition a worldwide bestseller, plus entirely new coverage of debugging, JavaScript, and using tables for page layout, and an expanded section on Cascading Style Sheets.

Like all the books in the Visual QuickStart series, this one breaks even the most complex tasks into easy-to-follow steps illustrated with hundreds of screenshots and the actual code. The book presumes no prior knowledge of HTML, making it the perfect introduction for beginners. But its tabbed format and info-packed appendixes (on special HTML characters and Web-safe colors, for example) also make it a handy and indispensable reference for those who build Web pages for a living. Find out why Amazon called the previous edition a "dream guide" to HTML. Less

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Community Reviews

Michael Avery rated it really liked it

Read this many years back to help me make my first website. It worked! A clear, good guide to designing with HTML and CSS.

Lafcadio rated it it was amazing

almost 7 years ago

Recommends it for: Ceridwyn

There are far newer versions of this book out now, but this is the one I own. Elizabeth Castro does an amazing job of explaining things step by step while not dumbing it down at all. This book assumes you already know what all the parts of your computer are, you're pretty. Read full review

Thadd rated it really liked it

over 5 years ago

A good book on HTML hand coding, a helpful guide with step by step instructions along with examples. Many books on this topic don't offer examples or step by step instructions. If you can't afford Dreamweaver or other expensive web creating applications, this title is ext. Read full review

Foxtower rated it really liked it

almost 4 years ago

I coulodn't agree more with the other reviewers. this book has most anything a person would ever need to know to create Web Pages. It's written logically with lots af great examples so the commands are easily understood. A really nice book to have!

Yago de Artaza Paramo rated it liked it

about 5 years ago

Well. I read this book back when HTML was useful other than for making small text formatting changes. I still think it is useful to learn some basic coding so you can resolve situations where your "new do it all" programs get stuck.

Rob Mcbride rated it it was amazing

over 4 years ago

I used this as a text in teaching Web Communication at College of Notre Dame. The students found it very accessible. It made me a permanent fan of Elizabeth Castro's web-related books.

Bryan Doan rated it it was amazing

about 6 years ago

I have been recommended this book from a friend but have yet to actually read it. I really want to start learning html and I think this book will really help me understand the language.

Hugh Chatfield rated it really liked it

about 3 years ago

The format is interesting, instruction on the left page and detailed coded examples on the right page. Very useful for those starting out with XML

Zack Hinckley rated it it was amazing

about 7 years ago

Very practical book. Everything I tried in the book worked, and I cant say that for a lot of HTML books. The section on scripts was very useful.

Tara Calaby rated it really liked it

about 1 year ago

This is very outdated now, but was a great HTML reference. It's partially responsible for many websites I no longer run :D

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Book Details

Paperback. Fourth Edition. 384 pages

Published 2000 by Peachpit Press (first published December 12th 1951

ISBN 0201354934 (ISBN13: 9780201354935 ) Edition Language English Original Title HTML for the World Wide Web (Visual QuickStart Guides)

About this Author

Studied Spanish, Catalan, and Basque at University of Pennsylvania and University of California at Berkeley. Moved to Barcelona in 1987, found job in computer company translating documentation and software. Started Página Uno in 1990: publisher of Mac related books in Spanish. Moved back to US in 1993 to edit 5th edition of The Macintosh Bible. Wrote first edition of HTML Visual QuickStart.




HTML 4 for the World Wide Web by Elizabeth Castro

HTML 4 for the World Wide Web (2000)

I've come to a realization: If you wish to learn HTML or read a book about HTML, and you go to the book store in order to find such a reference, you will almost certainly procure a book written in the 20th century.

Back then, shortly after we crawled out of the tide pool and descended from the trees to use one of two browsers to surf the Internet, HTML was a simple, forgiving thing. If you forgot to close your tags, it was all right. If you only made your page compatible with Navigator (A link in the Firefox evolutionary chain) or Internet Explorer, it was all right.

Nowadays, though, if you forget a closing tag, it could throw off your careful formatting. If you make a page only compatible with one browser, you're angering everybody who doesn't use such a tool. There are at least 5 mainstream browsers now, each with their own little quirks. In today's rough-and-tumble world of web design, the sort of books written in the yesteryear may be helpful at times, but are not good way to learn the language.

Maybe all this will change once HTML 5 hits the floor. Several browser already implement the specifications, but HTML 5 has not yet found its place in our bookstores (or at least mine!).

Castro, in her book, is very exhaustive, but her techniques are dated. The book would be a helpful reference if you're displaying web pages on cave walls, but if you're going to use this book as your only reference, you're going to generate less than respectable web pages.

I'd recommend if you absolutely positively need a book to learn HTML to give this one a try. Otherwise, wait around for O'Reilly to publish a book on HTML 5, which is infinitely better than HTML 4 or even the branching species, XHTML, which at a time was the memento mori for HTML.

But, yeah, if you can't get by using the internet to learn HTML, then give this book a shot. But you'll have to do a lot of work to fill the 12 years of improvements to HTML between now and the original publication of this book. ( )

I still refer to this often, having had it on my shelf for several years. ( )

▾ Book descriptions

Amazon.com Amazon.com Review (ISBN 0201354934. Paperback)

"Perhaps the best-written HTML tutorial ever."

This book occupies a unique spot in my opinion. It's "the competition." All other HTML/Web page learning or how-to books are trying to knock the crown from this book's head. While it may not be for everyone, it just does such a superb job that it defines the field. Congratulations, Elizabeth.

This is what I could classify as a true intermediate or advanced book. Elizabeth Castro doesn't waste time or steps trying to teach a newbie how to click here or create a text file. In fact, so much is assumed that this really can't be called a beginner book at all. So, if you know what you're doing or what you want, this book will serve you well.

The whole HTML thing is broken down into tasks: formatting, text, layout commands, cascading style sheets--the whole nine yards. Then individual HTML commands or tasks are illustrated one to a page. The steps fall down the outside of the page; illustrations line the page's inside.

While this is all a great way to learn HTML, I can still find room for improvement--though not at the expense of the format. For example, a reference or tear-out card would have been handy. And some topics, especially JavaScript, are glossed over too quickly to be useful. From personal experience, I know that some topics, such as FTP, could use even more hands-on examples.

If you "get it" when it comes to computers, and are ready to do some down-and-dirty HTML coding (and I'm not talking lame-old FrontPage here), this book will teach you the basics in no time. It will provide a firm foundation upon which you can easily build your Web pages for the future. --Dan Gookin

(retrieved from Amazon Thu, 12 Mar 2015 18:13:01 -0400)



HTML 4 for the World Wide Web by Elizabeth Castro (1999, Paperback)

HTML 4 for the World Wide Web by Elizabeth Castro (1999, Paperback) Synopsis

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the lingua franca of the Web, and like any language, it's constantly evolving. That's why Elizabeth Castro has written HTML 4 for the World Wide Web, Fourth Edition: Visual QuickStart Guide, an update to her blockbuster guide to HTML 4. You'll find all the concise, practical advice--and fun examples--that made the first edition a worldwide bestseller, plus entirely new coverage of debugging, JavaScript, and using tables for page layout, and an expanded section on Cascading Style Sheets. Like all the books in the Visual QuickStartseries, this one breaks even the most complex tasks into easy-to-follow steps illustrated with hundreds of screenshots and the actual code. The book presumes no prior knowledge of HTML, making it the perfect introduction for beginners. But its tabbed format and info-packed appendixes (on special HTML characters and Web-safe colors, for example) also make it a handy and indispensable reference for those who build Web pages for a living. Find out why Amazon called the previous edition a "dream guide" to HTML.

Product Identifiers Key Details

Number Of Pages

Visual QuickStart Guides

Additional Details Dimensions Target Audience Classification Method Table Of Content

Table Of Content

Introduction. The Internet, the Web, and HTML. Open but Not Equal. The Browser Wars. The Push for Standards. The Current Battlegrounds. What to Do? The Future: XML. The HTML VQS Web Site. 1. HTML Building Blocks. Writing HTML. HTML Tags. Nesting Tags. Spacing. Special Symbols. File Names. URLs. 2. Starting Your Web Page. Designing Your Site. Organizing Files. Creating a New Web Page. Starting Your Web Page. Creating the Foundation. Creating a Title. Organizing the Page. Starting a New Paragraph. Saving Your Web Page. Viewing Your Page in a Browser. 3. Text Formatting. About Deprecated Tags. Changing the Font. Making Text Bold or Italic. Choosing a Default Size for Text. Changing the Text Size. Choosing a Default Color for Text. Changing the Text Color. Creating Superscripts and Subscripts. Striking Out or Underlining Text. Using a Monospaced Font. Making Text Blink. Hiding Text (Adding Comments). 4. Creating Web Images. Getting Images. Making Images Smaller. Exporting GIF Images from Photoshop. Using (Mostly) Browser Safe Colors. Converting to Browser Safe Colors. Reducing the Number of Colors. Creating Transparency. Creating Fake Transparency. Interlacing GIF Images. Creating Animated GIFs. Creating JPEG Images. Blurring Images to Aid JPEG Compression. Creating Low Resolution Images. Creating PNG Files. 5. Using Images. Inserting Images on a Page. Offering Alternate Text. Specifying Size for Speedier Viewing. Linking Icons to External Images. Using Low Resolution Images. Wrapping Text around Images. Stopping Text Wrap. Adding Space around an Image. Scaling an Image. Aligning Images. Using a Banner. Adding Horizontal Rules. 6. Page Layout. Using Background Color. Using Background Images. Centering Elements on a Page. Specifying the Margins. Creating a Line Break. Keeping Lines Together. Creating Discretionary Line Breaks. Specifying the Space Between Paragraphs. Creating Indents. Creating Indents (with Lists). Creating Blocks of Space. Using Pixel Shims. Using Block Quotes. Quoting Short Passages of Text. Creating Columns. Using Preformatted Text. Positioning Elements with Layers. 7. Links. Creating a Link to Another Web Page. Creating Anchors. Linking to a Specific Anchor. Targeting Links to Specific Windows. Setting the Default Target. Creating Other Kinds of Links. Creating Keyboard Shortcuts for Links. Setting the Tab Order for Links. Using Images to Label Links. Dividing an Image into Clickable Regions. Creating a Client-Side Image Map. Using a Server-Side Image Map. Changing the Color of Links. 8. Lists. Creating Ordered Lists. Creating Unordered Lists. Creating Definition Lists. Creating Nested Lists. 9. Tables. Mapping Out Your Page. Creating a Simple Table. Adding a Border. Changing the Border Color. Setting the Width. Centering a Table on the Page. Wrapping Text around a Table. Adding Space around a Table. Spanning a Cell across Columns. Spanning a Cell across Rows. Aligning a Cell's Contents. Controlling Space in and Around Cells. Nesting One Table in Another. Changing a Cell's Color. Using a Background Image. Dividing Your Table into Column Groups. Dividing the Table into Horizontal Sections. Choosing Which Borders to Display. Controlling Line Breaks in a Cell. Speeding up Table Display. 10. Frames. Creating a Simple Frameset. Creating Frames in Columns. Creating Frames in Rows and Columns. Combining Framesets. Creating an Inline Frame. Adjusting a Frame's Margins. Showing or Hiding Scroll Bars. Adjusting the Color of the Borders. Adjusting the Frame Borders. Keeping Visitors from Resizing Frames. Targeting Links to Particular Frames. Targeting Links to Special Spots. Changin

Great little book to have in your programming arsenal.

Great book for having. in your hand to help answer some of your questions. I am taking an online class with the book online also. Sometimes, you just need to have a hard copy to look up the info yourself. The teacher even photocopied several pages to help with one of our lessons. Book is easy to use and understand. Has an index and great table of content. You will not regret having this book in your library.

Want to learn HTML? Pick up this oldie but goodie!

Say goodbye to the site b. uilders, and tell them "it was nice knowing you, but I don’t need you anymore! I know how to create my own code now!" ********************************************************** When I first got online, I had always been afraid of HTML. It looked like a nonsense language that made absolutely no sense at all! I thought a table was something you ate at and a frame was something to stick your child’s photo in! HTML 4 For the World Wide Web. by Elizabeth Castro was such a help to me! Not only does it explain what to do, but it explains what each code is, how to use it, and why you need it. It covers everything from the basics of BOLD and Italic font to inserting java applets. The clear, easy-to-follow instructions made the learning process so easy! I was tempted to jump ahead from time to time, but found it worked so much better for me if I follow the book from page to page. The book is set up to start you out on the very basic essentials, and slowly works you up to more complicated coding. I knew absolutely nothing about HTML, now feel comfortable using it. And it makes a great reference guide for those tricky codes that aren't easy to remember. Just a few of the things it covers in some of the chapters are: Starting your Webpage. Designing, organizing your files, saving and viewing your webpage. Text Formatting. Changing the font type, size, color; making subscripts, blinking text, and hiding text. Images. Making images, converting colors, exporting, animated gifs, alternate text, resizing, banners, linking images. Page Layout. Background colors and images, centering and aligning elements, creating indents and columns. Tables. Creating a simple table, borders, setting width, spanning cells, using a background image, diving table into sections. Frames. Creating a simple frame set, creating frames in rows and columns, adjusting the margins and borders, targeting the links. Forms. CGI scripts, sending data by email, creating forms on your site, setting up password options, allowing visitors to upload files. Multimedia. Adding sound, adding a link to sound, embedding video, creating a marquee, inserting applets. In addition to all of the above, HTML 4 For the World Wide Web covers color hex, publishing, getting people to visit, FTP, troubleshooting, javascript, and so much more! Whether you don’t know an URL from an anchor link, or you are already an experienced web builder, this book can be a great help to you! If you are just learning, you will love the concise, step-by-step instructions. If you are more experienced, you can look up topics in the large index and learn more about subjects that you need more information on, or just to refresh your memory.

A great how-to reference

This book was all I needed to get my web page up an. d running. It is well organized and easy to use. I still refer to it occasionally to write HTML code for my eBay listings. The book has gone through several revisions since this edition and you should buy the most up-to-date edition that you can find at the best possible price. Nevertheless, this volume is still a good choice because it covers the basics very well.

Great Price and Book was in excellent condition.

Haven't had time to review. book but will not be disappointed as I've owned a few publications by Visual Quick Start Guide which have been worth my investments.



HTML 4 for the World Wide Web Visual-QuickStart Guide

This version of Elizabeth Castro's bestselling guide to HTML was published in May, 1998 by Peachpit Press. Although it is the third version of the book, it has a new title, and thus no “third edition”. It's called HTML 4 for the World Wide Web: Visual QuickStart Guide. Its ISBN is 0-201-69696-7.

This version covers the very latest HTML specifications (version 4) as well as Cascading Style Sheets, level 2. In addition, Netscape- and Internet Explorer-specific extensions are also described in detail.

HTML 4 for the World Wide Web has 336 pages (80 more than the 2nd edition), and all the chapters have been fully updated. There are two new chapters (bringing the total to three) on Cascading Style Sheets, including all the new features for controlling text, color, layout, positioning, printing, and more. There is also a brand new chapter that explains how to incorporate JavaScript scripts into your HTML pages.

The new edition also explains how to get the most out of the META tag and includes a completely rewritten forms chapter, with more detailed information about CGI scripts.In fact, there are changes to practically every page. I've gone through and checked each tag with the current versions (on both Mac and Windows) of both Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer to see which tags work with which browsers--so you don't have to.

It also includes completely updated chapters on basic HTML, text formatting, creating and using images, links and anchors, lists, tables, forms, multimedia, HTML tools, special symbols and colors.

I am happy to report that the illustrations in the book that display the HTML code are now BIGGER! Hopefully, you'll all be able to put away those magnifying glasses!

HTML for the World Wide Web: Visual QuickStart Guide has two companion Web sites. The first is at Peachpit Press' site. It contains the Table of Contents, all the Source code and Examples, and more.

And you've already found the second companion Web site. It's right here at Cookwood Press. You'll find a gallery of Web pages created by readers of the book, a collection of letters about the book, a question and answer section, a hexadecimal color chart. like the one on the inside back cover of the book, a browser safe color chart (and palette for Photoshop) and a list of links to reviews. personal mentions. and colleges and universities where the book is required. Perhaps most importantly, I'm working on a section of extra bits of information that answer obscure, but often important questions. Putting them in the book would push the page limit (and readers' patience); this Web site will give me the chance to give more detail and explore clever techniques.

You'll also find personal links of my own, including more pictures of my cats (oh boy!), and my personal and professional background.

Each tag is explained with short, clear, step-by-step instructions accompanied by two-color illustrations so you can see exactly what to do and what it will look like when you've done it. You'll never have to wade through pages and pages of filler.

Can't remember how to use a tag? Just look it up in the complete index, jump to the page and you're done. This new edition includes an alphabetical listing of HTML 4 tags (and Netscape and Internet Explorer extensions), lists which tags are compatible with which browsers, and points to you the page in the book where you can find steps for using each tag.

Open the inside back cover to use the handy color table, complete with rgb codes. Choosing colors for text, links, and backgrounds has never been so easy.

HTML 4 for the World Wide Web:Visual Quickstart Guide only costs $17.95. You won't find another book that covers all of HTML 4, Cascading Style Sheets Level 2, plus Netscape and Internet Explorer Extensions, for less.

Click Opinions at left to read what people are saying about HTML 4 for the World Wide Web: Visual QuickStart Guide. And if you ever have any questions that I can help you with, just drop me a line.



Introduction to HTML 4

2 Introduction to HTML 4 2.1 What is the World Wide Web?

The World Wide Web (Web) is a network of information resources. The Web relies on three mechanisms to make these resources readily available to the widest possible audience:

  1. A uniform naming scheme for locating resources on the Web (e.g. URIs).
  2. Protocols, for access to named resources over the Web (e.g. HTTP).
  3. Hypertext, for easy navigation among resources (e.g. HTML).

The ties between the three mechanisms are apparent throughout this specification.

Every resource available on the Web -- HTML document, image, video clip, program, etc. -- has an address that may be encoded by a Universal Resource Identifier. or "URI".

URIs typically consist of three pieces:

  1. The naming scheme of the mechanism used to access the resource.
  2. The name of the machine hosting the resource.
  3. The name of the resource itself, given as a path.

Consider the URI that designates the W3C Technical Reports page:

This URI may be read as follows: There is a document available via the HTTP protocol (see [RFC2616] ), residing on the machine www.w3.org, accessible via the path "/TR". Other schemes you may see in HTML documents include "mailto" for email and "ftp" for FTP.

Here is another example of a URI. This one refers to a user's mailbox:

Note. Most readers may be familiar with the term "URL" and not the term "URI". URLs form a subset of the more general URI naming scheme.

Some URIs refer to a location within a resource. This kind of URI ends with "#" followed by an anchor identifier (called the fragment identifier ). For instance, here is a URI pointing to an anchor named section_2 :

A relative URI doesn't contain any naming scheme information. Its path generally refers to a resource on the same machine as the current document. Relative URIs may contain relative path components (e.g. ".." means one level up in the hierarchy defined by the path), and may contain fragment identifiers .

Relative URIs are resolved to full URIs using a base URI. As an example of relative URI resolution, assume we have the base URI "http://www.acme.com/support/intro.html". The relative URI in the following markup for a hypertext link:

would expand to the full URI "http://www.acme.com/support/suppliers.html", while the relative URI in the following markup for an image

would expand to the full URI "http://www.acme.com/icons/logo.gif".

In HTML, URIs are used to:

  • Link to another document or resource, (see the A and LINK elements).
  • Link to an external style sheet or script (see the LINK and SCRIPT elements).
  • Include an image, object, or applet in a page, (see the IMG. OBJECT. APPLET and INPUT elements).
  • Create an image map (see the MAP and AREA elements).
  • Submit a form (see FORM ).
  • Create a frame document (see the FRAME and IFRAME elements).
  • Cite an external reference (see the Q. BLOCKQUOTE. INS and DEL elements).
  • Refer to metadata conventions describing a document (see the HEAD element).

Please consult the section on the URI type for more information about URIs.

2.2 What is HTML?

To publish information for global distribution, one needs a universally understood language, a kind of publishing mother tongue that all computers may potentially understand. The publishing language used by the World Wide Web is HTML (from HyperText Markup Language).

HTML gives authors the means to:

  • Publish online documents with headings, text, tables, lists, photos, etc.
  • Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button.
  • Design forms for conducting transactions with remote services, for use in searching for information, making reservations, ordering products, etc.
  • Include spread-sheets, video clips, sound clips, and other applications directly in their documents.
2.2.1 A brief history of HTML

HTML was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN, and popularized by the Mosaic browser developed at NCSA. During the course of the 1990s it has blossomed with the explosive growth of the Web. During this time, HTML has been extended in a number of ways. The Web depends on Web page authors and vendors sharing the same conventions for HTML. This has motivated joint work on specifications for HTML.

HTML 2.0 (November 1995, see [RFC1866] ) was developed under the aegis of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to codify common practice in late 1994. HTML+ (1993) and HTML 3.0 (1995, see [HTML30] ) proposed much richer versions of HTML. Despite never receiving consensus in standards discussions, these drafts led to the adoption of a range of new features. The efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium's HTML Working Group to codify common practice in 1996 resulted in HTML 3.2 (January 1997, see [HTML32] ). Changes from HTML 3.2 are summarized in Appendix A

Most people agree that HTML documents should work well across different browsers and platforms. Achieving interoperability lowers costs to content providers since they must develop only one version of a document. If the effort is not made, there is much greater risk that the Web will devolve into a proprietary world of incompatible formats, ultimately reducing the Web's commercial potential for all participants.

Each version of HTML has attempted to reflect greater consensus among industry players so that the investment made by content providers will not be wasted and that their documents will not become unreadable in a short period of time.

HTML has been developed with the vision that all manner of devices should be able to use information on the Web: PCs with graphics displays of varying resolution and color depths, cellular telephones, hand held devices, devices for speech for output and input, computers with high or low bandwidth, and so on.

2.3 HTML 4

HTML 4 extends HTML with mechanisms for style sheets, scripting, frames, embedding objects, improved support for right to left and mixed direction text, richer tables, and enhancements to forms, offering improved accessibility for people with disabilities.

HTML 4.01 is a revision of HTML 4.0 that corrects errors and makes some changes since the previous revision.

2.3.1 Internationalization

This version of HTML has been designed with the help of experts in the field of internationalization, so that documents may be written in every language and be transported easily around the world. This has been accomplished by incorporating [RFC2070]. which deals with the internationalization of HTML.

One important step has been the adoption of the ISO/IEC:10646 standard (see [ISO10646] ) as the document character set for HTML. This is the world's most inclusive standard dealing with issues of the representation of international characters, text direction, punctuation, and other world language issues.

HTML now offers greater support for diverse human languages within a document. This allows for more effective indexing of documents for search engines, higher-quality typography, better text-to-speech conversion, better hyphenation, etc.

As the Web community grows and its members diversify in their abilities and skills, it is crucial that the underlying technologies be appropriate to their specific needs. HTML has been designed to make Web pages more accessible to those with physical limitations. HTML 4 developments inspired by concerns for accessibility include:

  • Better distinction between document structure and presentation, thus encouraging the use of style sheets instead of HTML presentation elements and attributes.
  • Better forms, including the addition of access keys, the ability to group form controls semantically, the ability to group SELECT options semantically, and active labels.
  • The ability to markup a text description of an included object (with the OBJECT element).
  • A new client-side image map mechanism (the MAP element) that allows authors to integrate image and text links.
  • The requirement that alternate text accompany images included with the IMG element and image maps included with the AREA element.
  • Support for the title and lang attributes on all elements.
  • Support for the ABBR and ACRONYM elements.
  • A wider range of target media (tty, braille, etc.) for use with style sheets.
  • Better tables, including captions, column groups, and mechanisms to facilitate non-visual rendering.
  • Long descriptions of tables, images, frames, etc.

Authors who design pages with accessibility issues in mind will not only receive the blessings of the accessibility community, but will benefit in other ways as well: well-designed HTML documents that distinguish structure and presentation will adapt more easily to new technologies.

Note. For more information about designing accessible HTML documents, please consult [WAI] .

2.3.3 Tables

The new table model in HTML is based on [RFC1942]. Authors now have greater control over structure and layout (e.g. column groups). The ability of designers to recommend column widths allows user agents to display table data incrementally (as it arrives) rather than waiting for the entire table before rendering.

Note. At the time of writing, some HTML authoring tools rely extensively on tables for formatting, which may easily cause accessibility problems.

2.3.4 Compound documents

HTML now offers a standard mechanism for embedding generic media objects and applications in HTML documents. The OBJECT element (together with its more specific ancestor elements IMG and APPLET ) provides a mechanism for including images, video, sound, mathematics, specialized applications, and other objects in a document. It also allows authors to specify a hierarchy of alternate renderings for user agents that don't support a specific rendering.

2.3.5 Style sheets

Style sheets simplify HTML markup and largely relieve HTML of the responsibilities of presentation. They give both authors and users control over the presentation of documents -- font information, alignment, colors, etc.

Style information can be specified for individual elements or groups of elements. Style information may be specified in an HTML document or in external style sheets.

The mechanisms for associating a style sheet with a document is independent of the style sheet language.

Before the advent of style sheets, authors had limited control over rendering. HTML 3.2 included a number of attributes and elements offering control over alignment, font size, and text color. Authors also exploited tables and images as a means for laying out pages. The relatively long time it takes for users to upgrade their browsers means that these features will continue to be used for some time. However, since style sheets offer more powerful presentation mechanisms, the World Wide Web Consortium will eventually phase out many of HTML's presentation elements and attributes. Throughout the specification elements and attributes at risk are marked as "deprecated ". They are accompanied by examples of how to achieve the same effects with other elements or style sheets.

2.3.6 Scripting

Through scripts, authors may create dynamic Web pages (e.g. "smart forms" that react as users fill them out) and use HTML as a means to build networked applications.

The mechanisms provided to include scripts in an HTML document are independent of the scripting language.

2.3.7 Printing

Sometimes, authors will want to make it easy for users to print more than just the current document. When documents form part of a larger work, the relationships between them can be described using the HTML LINK element or using W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) (see [RDF10] ).

2.4 Authoring documents with HTML 4

We recommend that authors and implementors observe the following general principles when working with HTML 4.

2.4.1 Separate structure and presentation

HTML has its roots in SGML which has always been a language for the specification of structural markup. As HTML matures, more and more of its presentational elements and attributes are being replaced by other mechanisms, in particular style sheets. Experience has shown that separating the structure of a document from its presentational aspects reduces the cost of serving a wide range of platforms, media, etc. and facilitates document revisions.

2.4.2 Consider universal accessibility to the Web

To make the Web more accessible to everyone, notably those with disabilities, authors should consider how their documents may be rendered on a variety of platforms: speech-based browsers, braille-readers, etc. We do not recommend that authors limit their creativity, only that they consider alternate renderings in their design. HTML offers a number of mechanisms to this end (e.g. the alt attribute, the accesskey attribute, etc.)

Furthermore, authors should keep in mind that their documents may be reaching a far-off audience with different computer configurations. In order for documents to be interpreted correctly, authors should include in their documents information about the natural language and direction of the text, how the document is encoded, and other issues related to internationalization.

2.4.3 Help user agents with incremental rendering

By carefully designing their tables and making use of new table features in HTML 4, authors can help user agents render documents more quickly. Authors can learn how to design tables for incremental rendering (see the TABLE element). Implementors should consult the notes on tables in the appendix for information on incremental algorithms.



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