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Cleared For Takeoff: The Ultimate Book Of Flight - Isbn:9781452135502

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  • Book Title: Cleared for Takeoff: The Ultimate Book of Flight
  • ISBN 13: 9781452135502
  • ISBN 10: 1452135509
  • Author: Rowland White
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Category (general): Other
  • Publisher: Chronicle Books
  • Format & Number of pages: 320 pages, book
  • Synopsis: All of aviation's dangerous, exciting, and most courageous moments are featured within this stunning compendium on flight.

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Cleared for Takeoff: The Ultimate Book of Flight: Womens Robes: The Robe Store - Bath Robes

Cleared for Takeoff: The Ultimate Book of Flight
  • Author: Rowland White
  • Publisher: Chronicle Books
  • Sales Rank: 74,854
  • Languages: English (Published). English (Original Language). English (Unknown)
  • Media: Hardcover
  • Number Of Items: 1
  • Age: 8 - 12 years
  • Pages: 320
  • Shipping Weight (lbs): 0
  • Dimensions (in): 8.3 x 1.3 x 10.3
  • Publication Date: October 11, 2016
  • ISBN: 1452135509
  • EAN: 9781452135502
Availability: Usually ships in 1-2 business days
  • All of aviation's dangerous, exciting, and most courageous moments are featured within this stunning compendium on flight. Packed with stories of heroic and innovative pioneers, fascinating profiles of remarkable planes from Spitfires to space shuttles, and how-to instructions for making everything from origami helicopters to bottle rockets—all accompanied by sensational photographs, illustrations, and diagrams—Cleared for Takeoff promises to astonish, entertain, and fire the imaginations of everyone with their head in the clouds.

    Source:

    therobestore.com

  • Articles

    Cleared for Takeoff (Liberty Porter, First Daughter, #3) by Julia DeVillers

    Cleared for Takeoff (Liberty Porter, First Daughter, #3)

    When your father is the President of the United States, and you've taken your own oath to represent the kids of America. well, that's a lot of responsibility for one girl. Luckily, Liberty Porter is up to the job! There's no problem too big orMore When your father is the President of the United States, and you've taken your own oath to represent the kids of America. well, that's a lot of responsibility for one girl. Luckily, Liberty Porter is up to the job! There's no problem too big or too small that can't be solved with a visit to the White House chocolate shop and the help of your own Secret Agent Man! This time Liberty is boarding Air Force One and taking her message to the world. She's going with her parents to Tbilisi Georgia! But don't tell Liberty, she can't keep a secret! And what if Liberty accidentally causes a diplomatic disaster? Could her father's first overseas trip end up being an international scandal? When Liberty is around, you can only count on one thing: it's bound to be fun! Less

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    Community Reviews

    Jacqueline.lopes12orange.k12.nc.us rated it it was amazing

    about 4 years ago

    Liberty Porter First Daughter Cleared for Takeoff is the name of the book I read. Liberty is the main character on the book she is daughter president of United States. She had to move to the white house with her family while her dad is a president. At the beginning she d. Read full review

    Ms. Yingling rated it liked it

    over 4 years ago

    Liberty is still trying to get used to her Dad being the president-- it's not like she can have tourist kids up for play dates, more's the pity. She's bored when she is on vacation and everyone else has to work, even when Max Mellon shows up with his mom on their way thro. Read full review

    Brett rated it liked it

    about 5 years ago

    In this third book, Liberty Porter is set to take her first overseas trip, & she's both very excited & kind of nervous - what if she does something to embarrass her parents or her country? Luckily, her best friend (& son of the Chief of Protocol) James is goin. Read full review

    Krystal rated it it was amazing

    I loved this book! It was.
    1. Funny
    2. Good for younger readers, as well as older readers
    3. Was full of some facts, even if it was fiction
    4. The rest of the books in the series were just as awesome!
    5. Word choice was phenomenal, for the reading age level!

    Sydney rated it really liked it

    almost 3 years ago

    its about Liberty gets to go on a trip to Georgia with her parents.Liberty has a lot of fun,but when she is on tv she says something really bad in Georgia language.she says i will eat your eye balls.

    Emma rated it really liked it

    over 2 years ago

    This book was amazing! It was about a girl who's father is the president. She has lots of adventures with her dad! Read this book and the rest of the series!

    Ashly rated it really liked it

    over 4 years ago

    Source:

    www.goodreads.com

    Cleared For Takeoff Book, eBook, Liz Mariner, AE Link Publications, ISBN-13 9780979506857, Aircraft Technical Book Company, Aviation Books and Video R

    Cleared For Takeoff

    note: eBook customers will receive the eBook .pdf files immediately upon placing the order and then the Audio files separately within 24 hours.

    Pilots and air traffic controllers around the world are stepping up to meet the new ICAO English language proficiency requirements. Flight training and ESL schools are responding to meet the demand. At AE Link we believe that understanding and speaking Aviation English is essential, and not merely to meet a new standard, but to ensure safe flying everywhere. The Cleared for Takeoff: AVIATION ENGLISH MADE EASY has been designed to help the student obtain a strong foundation in English for aviation.

    Author Liz Mariner presents the sensible approach she has been using with remarkable success in pilot training and English for aviation classrooms all over the world for the last 20 years.

    Cleared for Takeoff has been designed not as a textbook, but as a workbook for use in the ESL or flight training classroom or as a tool for individual study. Students will benefit from group learning exercises and working in pairs or individually by following the simple instructions. The essential Aviation English text for your pilot training or air traffic control training program, Cleared for Takeoff is the proven, practical approach.

    The companion audio CD accurately recreates the environment pilots and controllers encounter. Students will gain extensive listening practice and opportunities to practice speaking what they have learned from the wide variety of interactive exercises on the CD.

    In this book, students will understand and use the most common terms in:
    ◾ Communications with air traffic control
    ◾ Student and instructor communications
    ◾ Airport features and the traffic pattern
    ◾ Aircraft features
    ◾ The ATIS
    ◾ The basics of flight
    ◾ Pattern work
    ◾ Aircraft checklists
    ◾ Weather and weather reports
    ◾ VFR navigation
    ◾ Operating in controlled airspace

    eBook File Description: PRODUCT REVIEWS: RELATED LINKS:

    Source:

    www.actechbooks.com

    Cleared for Takeoff: The Ultimate Book of Flight - ISBN:9781452135502

    Book10000 takeoff

    Download Book Takeoff in PDF format. You can Read Online Takeoff here in PDF, EPUB, Mobi or Docx formats.

    Author : Arthur Vincie
    ISBN : 9780415661683
    Genre : ART
    File Size : 88. 44 MB
    Format : PDF, Docs
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    You have the camera, time, money (or credit card), so why don't you just start shooting? Preparing for Takeoff will give you the tools you need to fully prepare for your independent film. This book features: Vital preproduction tips on scheduling, previsualization, script analysis, location scouting, budgeting, hiring vendors, and clearing permits A detailed analysis of the role both producers and directors play in the preproduction process Crucial advice on how to prepare for postproduction and distribution while still in the early stages of making a film Lessons from the field in how to avoid mid-shoot changes, unhappy actors, fostering a resentful crew, wasted days and dwindling finances An accompanying website that includes sample script analyses, storyboards, beat sheets, editable budget forms, and more

    Author :
    ISBN : 079031908X
    Genre : Flight
    File Size : 75. 87 MB
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    Author : Tyler Perry
    ISBN : 1594482403
    Genre : Humor
    File Size : 78. 52 MB
    Format : PDF, ePub
    Download : 755
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    The author's alter ego, the outspoken, worldly wise grandmother Madea, shares her thoughts on life, love, and everyone around her, reflecting on marriage, child-rearing, etiquette, the Bible and the church, beauty advice, and gun care.

    Author : Harry Allard
    ISBN : 0395657431
    Genre : Juvenile Fiction
    File Size : 74. 15 MB
    Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
    Download : 744
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    In an attempt to avoid a visit from Uncle Carbuncle, the Stupids fly off in their airplane and visit several other relatives who are just as stupid as they are.

    Author : John Parsons
    ISBN : 0748758704
    Genre : Readers (Elementary)
    File Size : 72. 8 MB
    Format : PDF, Kindle
    Download : 218
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    Author : Roger Cliff
    ISBN : 9780833052063
    Genre : POLITICAL SCIENCE
    File Size : 84. 71 MB
    Format : PDF, ePub
    Download : 985
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    and other foreign aerospace firms are dependent on supplies from China, and the implications of all of these issues for U.S. security interests. The study should be of interest to business analysts, policymakers, lawmakers, and anyone who wishes to learn about China's market for commercial aviation, the capabilities of China's aerospace manufacturing industry, the role foreign aerospace firms are playing in the development of China's aerospace capabilities, and security implications for the United States. This research was sponsored by the U.S-China Economic and Security Review Commission, which was established by Congress in 2000 to monitor and report on the economic and national security dimensions of U.S. trade and economic ties with the People's Republic of China. This research was conducted within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND Corporation's National Security Research Division (NSRD).

    Source:

    www.book10000.com

    Your iPad is now officially cleared for takeoff (and every other part of the flight, too)

    Your iPad is now officially cleared for takeoff (and every other part of the flight, too)

    The long struggle between airlines and your unrelenting in-flight boredom is over.

    The Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) announced today that airlines can expand passenger use of tablets and other personal electronic devices to all phases of flight — including takeoff.

    But while the FAA is relaxing its rules, it’s ultimately leaving the real decisions up to airlines, which will have to decide whether the expansion is safe for their planes.

    “It will take some time for each airline to certify their fleet is safe, but we expect implementation to be soon” FAA administrator Michael Huerta said during a press conference today.

    Under current rules, passengers are required to turn off their devices while planes are traveling under 10,000 feet — all in an effort to avoid interference with airplane equipment.

    But while airlines and the FAA have long feared that tablets and e-readers interfere with in-flight systems, there’s no real proof that such interference exists.

    The new rules, however, don’t extend to cell phones, which the FAA says should still be in airplane mode or have cellular service disabled. That means no in-flight voice calls. Thank goodness for that.

    The development is a good sign, ultimately, not just for passengers, but also for airlines, which can offer flights with one less layer of frustration. Frequent fliers rejoice.

    Source:

    venturebeat.com

    Cleared for Takeoff - Lockheed Martin

    Sustainability F-35 Lightning II Generation Beyond Separating Military Personnel

    A checkered flag to signal pilots, an umbrella to block the sun, and a wheelbarrow for carting gear on and off the airfield. Those were the tools of the trade when Archie League went to work as the nation’s first air traffic controller in 1929 at Lambert Field in St. Louis. It was a modest start toward a vital goal: making air travel safe, fast, and efficient.

    Eighty-three years later, nearly 134 million takeoffs and landings occur in the United States each year, carrying nearly 750 million passengers more than 7 billion miles. And all with a transportation safety record that is second to none.

    Archie League’s pioneering spirit and commitment to safety is alive and well in today’s air traffic control arena. It’s a mission, a spirit and a vision Lockheed Martin has been proud to support for 55 years. More than 75 percent of flights in America and virtually all flights over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are controlled using Lockheed Martin technology. Lockheed Martin is the leader in general aviation air traffic control. Worldwide, Lockheed Martin-built systems manage more than 60 percent of global air traffic. And work underway today aims at keeping Lockheed Martin at the forefront of air traffic control as next-generation air safety systems are deployed around the world.

    Early Growth
    Civil aviation and air traffic control technology advanced rapidly during the 1930s and 1940s. Radios quickly replaced flags at air traffic control towers around the country. The Commerce Department called for the creation of three air traffic control centers in Newark, Cleveland, and Chicago, and in 1938, Congress created the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA), the forerunner of today’s Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), to regulate the airline industry.

    En Route and Terminal
    It was clear by the late 1950s that air travel was the transportation of the future, and the FAA realized that the unmatched speed and calculating powers of computers, the technology of the future, would be needed to keep industry growth on course, literally. More than 60 million people were flying each year.

    To lead the computerization of the air traffic control system for flights en route between airports, the government turned to Lockheed Martin heritage company IBM Federal Systems – today part of Lockheed Martin’s Information Systems and Global Solutions division. In 1957, the division installed an IBM 650 mainframe computer at the FAA’s Indianapolis control center. That initial foray into the digital world rapidly led to the development of what became the nation’s computerized En Route traffic control system, managing planes traveling above 10,000 feet between airports. The first such En Route computer system designed and built by IBM was installed in Jacksonville, Florida. By 1959, five air traffic control centers were equipped with IBM computers to track flight information. The system was rolled out to other centers throughout the 1960s.

    “The system changed air traffic management,” said Don Zarefoss, a member of the team that built the first En Route system. “It allowed us to automate many of the manual tasks the controllers did.” He compared it to “moving from an office environment that was paper-driven to one that is PC-based.”

    Sperry Univac, another Lockheed Martin heritage company, in1958 provided the FAA with a Univac file computer to speed the processing of flight information, and developed the Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) at roughly the same time IBM Federal Systems was developing the En Route system. ARTS was initially installed in FAA facilities in Atlanta and then in New York. Alongside the flight blips on the controllers’ radar screen, the system displayed the flight’s identity, speed, and altitude, information that controllers had previously received verbally from pilots. Tweaks to the initial system led to the rollout of ARTS III, an enhanced version that was installed in all terminal air traffic control centers by 1974.

    IT Drives Rapid Change
    Beginning in the mid-1980s, the FAA undertook a visionary modernization program. In 1985, IBM began installing the Host Computer System. Host computers provided more than five times the capacity of the previous generation of computer processors, and were ten times faster and more reliable and easier to maintain. Martin Marietta also participated in overhauling and integrating the air traffic control system during this period. Beginning in 1983 the company worked with the FAA to manage and integrate new and upgraded systems to ensure they worked as a unified entity.

    A notable example of a Lockheed Martin technology successfully developed in the early 1990s was the Display System Replacement project, which replaced 30-year-old equipment with state-of-the- art displays and software for air traffic controllers. Others include the User Resource Evaluation Tool, which was operational in seven traffic control sites by 2002, providing conflict detection systems between aircraft and enhancing electronic flight data available to controllers. By the mid-2000s, Lockheed Martin had also implemented the Advanced Technology Oceanic Procedures with centers in New York, Anchorage, and Oakland, covering the Atlantic and Pacific oceanic airspaces.

    The company has built similar systems for the UK, Kazakhstan, Albania and Korea, delivering safer, more efficient air traffic systems to transportation hubs around the world.

    Looking Ahead
    With air travel set for even more accelerated growth in the future, the FAA is now leading an effort called NextGen to create the air traffic infrastructure of tomorrow. A key part of NextGen is the Lockheed Martin-built En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) system, which uses highly accurate satellite technology to make routes more efficient, save fuel and reduce emissions. ERAM is currently running 24/7 at air traffic control centers in Seattle and Salt Lake City, and is slated for deployment to twenty centers nationwide.

    While these technologies will take many forms, they all share a common goal: to move the air traffic control system away from the original model of a “highway in the sky” toward more flexibility and freedom in commercial aviation. NextGen will maintain the industry’s unmatched safety record while making flying faster, cheaper, and more environmentally friendly than ever.

    • More than 75 percent of flights in America and virtually all flights over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are controlled using Lockheed Martin technology.
    • For the computerization of the air traffic control system for flights en route between airports, the government turned to Lockheed Martin heritage company IBM Federal Systems.
    • En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) represents the latest phase in the continual evolution of the nation’s air traffic control system. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor.
    “The system changed air traffic management,” said Don Zarefoss, a member of the team that built the first En Route system. “It allowed us to automate many of the manual tasks the controllers did.”

    Source:

    www.lockheedmartin.com

    Phases of Flight

    Phases of Flight

    26 November 2013,

    1. Pre-departure. This is the preparation time for flight. The pilots will commence with a walk around of the aircraft, which is a visual inspection of the entire outside of the aircraft to check for any abnormality such as an oil leak, tire wear or damaged control surfaces, etc. They will then program all of the computers in the flight deck in accordance with their flight plan, check to be sure fuel is loaded, and commence all their prestart and systems checks prior to passengers boarding.

    Cabin crew will check their emergency equipment in their allocated area, ensure their harness/seatbelt is adjusted to fit and check catering supplies before conducting a final security check of the cabin before passenger boarding.

    2. Clearance to Tax i. Once the aircraft is boarded with passengers, loaded with cargo and all doors closed, the pilots will obtain a ground clearance from the airport control tower to taxi. The aircraft is then pushed back, typically with a tug. When the aircraft is clear to power under its own steam, the tug is unhooked and the aircraft will taxi (manoeuvre) to the take­ off runway.

    3. Take-off. When the aircraft accelerates to a flying speed that is particular to every flight, it becomes airborne and the landing gear is retracted. The actual take­ off speed and distance required for every flight varies due to a number of factors: pressure height, wind speed and direction, aircraft weight, air temperature, flap setting, runway gradient, clearance and operational requirements.

    4. Initial climb. An aircraft needs a lot of power to take off, and therefore, in normal operational conditions, a power setting close to maximum thrust will be set for take off. However, like a car engine, jet engines burn more fuel and wear out quicker when working at maximum revs, so the pilots will reduce from take off power to a lesser thrust for a climb when a safe altitude is deemed to have been reached. (This often causes some concern to passengers as they hear the engines reduce their noise output, and often they will feel the aircraft slow down or even feel as though it is falling out of the sky).
    The wheels are retracted as soon as the aircraft is airborne to reduce drag and help lift the airplane.
    Technically, landing gear retraction occurs once there is insufficient runway left to be able to land should an emergency happen. Why lift the wheels when you might have to use them in an event of engine failure? (It’s a safety precaution in that, with so little elevation and time, you would have time enough to lower the wheels).

    5. Climb to cruise altitude. About five minutes into the climb (longer if experiencing low ­level turbulence), the pax (passenger) seatbelt sign is turned off in smooth conditions. This is the cue for flight attendants to be able to unbuckle their seat belts and commence the in­flight service. At this time, the Cabin Manager makes the post­ take ­off PA (public announcement).

    6. Cruise altitude. This is where the bulk of the flight is spent. Optimum cruise altitude depends upon the weight of the aircraft, and typically, an aircraft will ascend (climb) as the flight progresses and fuel weight is burnt off. While it depends on the wind at altitude, it is more fuel efficient to fly as high as we can for as long as we can.

    7. Descent. The descent phase is the decrease in altitude from cruise altitude to initial approach altitude. This is approximately 20 minutes from our estimated time of arrival (ETA). At approximately

    10 minutes before landing, the seat belt sign will be turned on by the flight deck crew, which enables the cabin crew to do a ‘final secure’ of the cabin for landing.

    8. Approach. At this time, the aircraft has to be configured for landing, and this is predominately predetermined at the flight planning stage. The aircraft will gradually slow down, the flaps at the rear of the wings and the slats at the front of the wing will be extended to create more lift at a slower speed, which ultimately lowers our landing speed. The wheels will be lowered and the aircraft will line up on what they call ‘final’ and continue down the approach path and land.

    9. Landing. This is the critical stage of flight where the aircraft slows to such an extent that it literally falls out of the sky just inches from the ground. The landing speed is different for every flight and is dependent on the same factors as for take­off. The aircraft will deploy ‘lift dumpers’ on top of the wind to break the smooth airflow over the wings and destroy any ‘lift’ component. They are often referred to as speed brakes. Wheel brakes are applied, and reverse engine thrust is also activated. Reverse thrust is where the air exiting the engine is redirected forward to in effect blow the aircraft backwards and help slow it to taxi speed.

    10.Taxi to the terminal. This is manoeuvring from the runway after landing to the terminal via the taxiways to a designated arrival bay.

    11.Post flight. This is where you change crews or ‘turn around’ and do everything all over again for the next leg.

    When the post­flight and pre­flight phases (one at the end of a flight and the other at the start of the next flight) effectively lead into each other, this is often referred to as “turn around.”

    Source:

    infohas.ma

    Cleared for Takeoff: The Ultimate Book of Flight - ISBN:9781452135502

    / Aviation_ATC_Book_R_Buck_-_kopia

    MACMILLAN PUBLISHING COMPANY

    COLLIER MACMILLAN INTERNATIONAL

    COLLIER MACMILLAN PUBLISHERS

    Photography Credits: Archive Pictures: © Jean C. Pigozzi; © AT&T; Black Star: © Charles Bonnay, Shelly Katz, James Edward Vaughan; © Boeing; © Robert O. Buck; © Cessna; © Federal Aviation Administration, United States Department of Transportation; © Gates Learjet Corporation; © General Electric; Monkmeyer Photo Press Service: © Rogers; Photo Researchers, Inc. © Gerry Cranham, Robert Peron; © David Planck; Stock Boston: © Jeff Albertson, Fredrik D. Bodin, Arthur Grace, Ellis Herwig, Frank Siteman MCMLXXXI; Leo de Wys: © David Burnett, Dirch Halstead, Everett C. Johnson.

    Cover Design Rudy Michaels

    Cover Photo © Herman Kokajan from Black Star

    Copyright © 1984 MACMILLAN PUBLISHING COMPANY A Division of Macmillan, Inc.

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher.

    Macmillan Publishing Company

    866 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022

    Collier Macmillan Canada, Inc.

    Printed in the United States of America

    ISBN 0-02-973710-9 98765432

    International Air Traffic Control

    This book is one of Macmillan's Career English series.CareerEnglishis intended for students who have some proficiency in English as well as a working knowledge of their own professional fields. The books are designed to teach the special terminology students need in order to communicate in English within their career areas.

    Students will find the Career English books clear, lively, practical, and easy to use. Each chapter covers one specific topic and begins with a dialogue between an expert in the field and a student or a trainee. In the course of the dialogue, the key terms pertaining to the chapter topic are introduced in a realistic context. The dialogue is followed by a terminology practice in which each key term is defined and used in three sample sentences. At the end of each chapter, students will find a simple check-up exercise to determine whether or not they have mas­tered the terms introduced in the dialogue. An answer key to the check-ups is provided for self-correction. A glossary at the end of each book lists all the terms in the text with the numbers of the chapters in which they appear. In addition a cassette recording of the dialogues is available for each book. Use of the cassette is optional but highly recommended.

    The books in the Career English series are designed to be equally useful for students studying in a classroom or independently.

    To the student: If you are studying independently, the following suggestions will help you to use this book to its best advantage:

    Read the dialogue from beginning to end.

    Read the terminology practice.

    If you have the tape, listen to it. Listen for the words in the terminology practice, paying special attention to pronunciation and intonation.

    Reread the dialogue aloud. (If you have the tape, play it again to check your pronunciation.)

    Do the end-of-chapter check-up to be sure you have mastered the terms introduced in the chapter. Check your answers with the answer key at the back of the book. If you have made an error in the check-up, use the terminology practice to look up the words you have not mastered. Find the terms in the dialogue, and reread the dialogue. Correct your errors.

    Now you are ready to go on to the next chapter.

    To the teacher: The following suggestions will help you to use this book to its best advantage in your classroom:

    Ask students to read the dialogue silently.

    Have them read the terminology practice to themselves.

    If you have the tape, play it for the class. Suggest that students follow along in their books, listening carefully for the words in the terminology practice and paying careful attention to pronunciation and intonation.

    Read each word in the terminology practice aloud, asking students to repeat after you. Check for pronunciation. Have students take turns reading the sample sentences aloud.

    Ask two students to read the dialogue aloud, taking the parts of the characters in the dialogue. (You may wish to have several pairs of students read each dialogue.) As the dialogue is being read, help the students with their pronunciation and intonation.

    Ask students to do the end-of-chapter check-up to be sure they have mastered the vocabulary introduced in the chapter. If students have their own books, they may write their answers directly in the book. If the books will be used by others, ask students to write their answers on separate paper.

    Students can check their answers with the answer key at the back of the book. If they have made any errors, suggest they look up the terms in the terminology practice, reread the definitions and sample sentences, and reread the dialogue. Then have them correct their check-ups.

    Let's look at how the air traffic control (ATC) system operates.

    Is this information applicable to countries other than the United States?

    Yes. You'll find that ATC operates in a similar manner throughout the world. As you must realize, standard communication prevents confusion. In this business a wrong altitude or heading could be disastrous.

    Is there an organization responsible for maintaining standards for communication?

    Well, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was formed in 1944 in order to establish a standard international system of communication.

    How many countries does the ICAO represent?

    Today the ICAO represents approximately 196 countries. It standardizes layout and organization of airports, aircraft certification and airworthiness guidelines, and the types of international personnel at airports.

    What kind of personnel do you mean?

    Personnel in areas such as customs, health, and immigration.

    Are there standards for pronunciation of numbers and letters?

    Yes, there are. Here are some exercises that will give you practice with numbers and letters. If you learn correctly from the beginning, you'll develop excellent communication skills.

    Numbers are used in almost every radio call. Except for whole hundreds and thousands, pronounce each digit of a number separately. The number ten, for example, is pronounced one zero, rather thanten. The number 11,000 is pronouncedone one thousand, noteleven thousand.

    When a number has a decimal point in it, say the word decimal at the proper place. The number 121.1, for example, is pronouncedone two onedecimal one. Decimal is the ICAO standard. However, in the United States the wordpoint is sometimes used.

    To avoid misunderstandings, the pronunciation of some digits differs from that used in normal conversation. There could be confusion on the radio between the numbers five and nine; these are pronounced fife andniner. The numeral 0 is pronouncedzero, the numeral three istree, and the word thousand istousand. All other numbers are pronounced in the usual fashion.

    C. Number Practice

    Read the following numbers aloud. Be sure to pronounce them as if you are making a radio call.

    G. Terminology Practice

    Air Traffic Control (ATC): a service provided to promote a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic

    Is it difficult for ATC to communicate with a large number of aircraft?

    ATC is responsible for the safety of aircraft.

    It is ATC's responsibility to provide safe air traffic separation.

    altitude: the elevation above sea level

    The aircraft is flying at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

    What's our present altitude?

    The minimum altitude for this flight is 7,500 feet.

    heading: the horizontal direction in which an aircraft is pointed, expressed in angular distance from a reference point

    Turn left to a heading of 150 degrees.

    Will this heading take us south of the airport?

    Fly this heading until the airport is in sight.

    International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO): an international organization that regulates aviation

    Over 190 countries belong to the ICAO.

    Do all nations belong to the ICAO?

    International standards regulating air navigation are recommended by the ICAO.

    The Flight Plan

    What's the first step of an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight?

    A flight plan must be prepared. Then it's delivered to the controlling agency.

    That's right. The flight plan includes the flight's destination, route, altitude, time of departure, en-route flight time, and alternate airport.

    What factors should be considered in the planning of a flight?

    Once you've determined your destination, you consider the capabilities of your aircraft and its equipment, and, of course, the weather is an important factor.

    What type of map is used to prepare a flight plan?

    A radio facility chart. Airways and their connecting radio navigational facilities, minimum en-route altitudes above mean sea level (MSL), and very high frequency (VHF) communications are recorded on this chart.

    How is time expressed?

    We use Greenwich mean time. Airspeed is measured in knots.

    Is the flight plan written on a special form?

    Yes, and then it's filed in person at a flight service station (FSS).

    Must it be filed in person?

    No. Often flight plans are filed by telephone or aircraft radio. You may begin a flight using visual flight rules (VFR) and decide an IFR flight plan is required. Your flight plan would have to be updated from the air.

    Is it the pilot's responsibility to file the flight plan?

    Not always. Often an airline uses a computer to calculate a flight plan. Then it's filed by telephone, without the pilot's input. The pilot reviews the flight plan and makes any necessary changes.

    Will the flight plan always be accepted as originallyplanned?

    The controlling agency will attempt to issue an ATC clearance as close to the original flight plan as possible.

    You mentioned VFR. Is a flight plan necessary for a VFR flight?

    Not in the United States. However, some countries have regulations that require VFR flight plans to be coordinated with ATC.

    B. Terminology Practice

    airspeed: the speed of an aircraft relative to the air through which it is moving

    The airspeed was 200 knots.

    Airspeed corrected for altitude and temperature is called true airspeed.

    What's this plane's airspeed?

    alternate airport: an airport, designated in the flight plan, to which an aircraft proceeds when it is unable to land at the originally designated airport

    Our destination was fogged in, so we proceeded to our alternate airport.

    Is it necessary to file an alternate airport?

    An airport chosen as an alternate airport must have certain minimum weather conditions.

    clearance: authorization for an aircraft to proceed

    An IFR flight requires an ATC clearance.

    Does an aircraft need an ATC clearance in order to land?

    We've been issued clearance to land.

    file: to submit a flight plan

    File the flight plan one hour before departure.

    When did you file your IFR flight plan?

    Contact the FSS to file your flight plan.

    flight plan: specified information relating to an intended flight

    Can I file a flight plan over the telephone?

    Fly the heading indicated in the flight plan.

    A flight plan can be filed for either IFR or VFR flights.

    flight service station (FSS): an ATC facility that provides flight assistance services

    Contact the FSS for New York weather information.

    Do all airports have an FSS?

    You can file the flight plan with the FSS.

    Greenwich mean time (Z): the mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich, England, which is used as a basis for standard time throughout the world

    Our intended departure time is 2314 Greenwich mean time.

    The aircraft passed over Zurich at 0452 Greenwich mean time.

    How is Greenwich mean time calculated?

    instrument flight rules (IFR): rules that govern a flight that is being navigated using instruments only

    In the United States, IFR must be followed when visibility is less than three miles.

    A flight plan must be filed for an IFR flight.

    Are you rated to fly IFR?

    knot: a nautical mile per hour

    The airspeed is 250 knots.

    Our total flight had an average speed of 362 knots.

    Is a knot larger than a statute mile?

    mean sea level (MSL): the average height of the surface of the sea

    The elevation of the airport is 390 feet above MSL.

    Our altitude will be 4,000 meters above MSL.

    Is the elevation of that airport 1,500 feet above MSL?

    radio facility chart: a chart used for communication and navigation by radio

    An IFR flight is planned using a radio facility chart.

    A radio facility chart shows airways connecting radio navigational facilities.

    Do you keep more than one radio facility chart on board?

    very high frequency (VHF): descriptive of radio waves that range from 30 to 300 megacycles, used for navigation and communication

    ATC uses VHF radio transmitters.

    How many VHF radios does your airplane have?

    VHF radio transmitters provide excellent reception.

    visual flight rules (VFR): rules controlling a flight that is being navigated using visual references

    It is unnecessary to file a flight plan when flying VFR in the United States.

    Must an aircraft remain clear of clouds in order to fly VFR?

    An aircraft flying VFR can request radio traffic advisories.

    Fill in the blanks with the proper terms from the list.

    A release time is included in a clearance. It's the time when a flight can be accepted into the air traffic system. It could be the time the pilot requested in the flight plan, or there might be a delay due to air traffic. Once a flight is cleared and under way, the pilot adheres to the specified conditions of the clearance.

    Why is a clearance required?

    A clearance provides traffic separation as well as terrain and obstruction clearance. In addition, the information provided by the flight plan makes it easier to find a plane that is missing or has crashed.

    How does a pilot receive clearance? By radio?

    For the most part, yes. At larger airports, there may be a separate radio frequency used only for clearance delivery.

    What happens when there is no clearance delivery frequency at the airport?

    An FSS may issue the clearance. If no radio communication is available, ATC will use the telephone to contact the pilot.

    Does a pilot write down the clearance when it's received?

    Yes. There are several systems of shorthand that make it easier to write a clearance quickly and accurately.

    Does ATC always issue a clearance for the entire flight plan?

    Sometimes ATC may issue a clearance to a fix. This happens when the airways are very congested. An expect further clearance time (EFC) will also be included.

    What happens if the plane reaches the fix before receiving a clearance to proceed?

    The pilot flies in a holding pattern until clearance is received.

    Can a clearance be changed once the plane is airborne?

    Yes, that procedure is similar to filing a flight plan in the air.

    B. Clearance Shorthand

    C. Terminology Practice

    clearance delivery: an ATC service that transmits flight clearances

    The IFR clearance is transmitted by clearance delivery.

    The copilot contacted clearance delivery.

    Does this airport have a special frequency assigned to clearance delivery?

    expect further clearance time (EFC): the time when an additional clearance will be issued

    The aircraft is in a holding pattern with an EFC of 2143 Greenwich mean time.

    When do you estimate our EFC?

    Our EFC is 1654 Greenwich mean time.

    fix: a geographical position determined by visual reference to one or more navigational aids

    Notify ATC when we pass the next fix.

    How do you calculate our present fix?

    We must enter a holding pattern at the next fix.

    holding pattern: the oval course flown by an aircraft awaiting clearance to land

    How long will we remain in the holding pattern?

    We can expect to leave the holding pattern in ten minutes.

    The airport is very busy, so we'll have to fly in a holding pattern.

    release time: the departure time issued by ATC

    How long do we have to wait for the release time?

    When the release time arrives, ATC will clear the aircraft for takeoff.

    Your release time is 2134Z.

    Match the terms on the left with the abbreviations on the right.

    We can observe the activity around the airport from the control tower.

    The airport is busy. Who keeps the traffic organized and moving?

    Ground control governs the movement of planes and ground vehicles on the controlled portions of the airport, excluding the active runways.

    With all these planes, I'm surprised the radio frequencies aren't always congested.

    The Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) helps reduce clutter on the ground-control frequencies at busy airports.

    ATIS is a repetitive broadcast of routine information, such as weather conditions and data regarding the airport. It's updated hourly or as needed. The broadcast is identified by a letter of the phonetic alphabet. This letter is changed every time the report is updated. Let's listen to the current ATIS.

    Boston Logan Airport information Zulu. Time 2053Z. Weather: 1,900 scattered, ceiling 2,400 broken, 3,000 overcast, visibility 10 miles. Temperature: 60, dew point 52 degrees. Wind: 290 degrees at 11 miles per hour. Altimeter setting: 29.95. Arriving aircraft expect an approach to Runway 33L. Departures on Runway 27. Notices to airmen (NOTAMs): the inner taxiway is closed between taxiways Mike and Kilo. Advise on initial contact that you have information Zulu.

    What's meant by taxiways Mike and Kilo and Runway 33L?

    At large airports, taxiways are identified by the phonetic alphabet. Runway 33 refers to the parallel runways at a heading of 330 degrees; the L indicates that it is the left runway.

    Then the plane taxis to the runway following the directions given by ground control.

    So, ground control handles aircraft from when they taxi for departure until they reach the active runway.

    And ground control also assists aircraft leaving a runway after landing until their arrival at a gate.

    It works so smoothly! It must be more complicated in bad weather, or if a plane isn't equipped with a radio.

    Normally a plane couldn't fly into a controlled airport without a radio. But, in the case of a radio failure, an emergency, or by special arrangement, there are light guns that can be used. Standard light signals are flashed to an aircraft to indicate instructions.

    B. Light Signals

    Source:

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