Conversion involves the change of a word from one word class to another. For example, the verbs to email and to microwave are formed from the nouns email and microwave :
Can you text her? (verb from noun text. meaning to send a text-message )
They are always jetting somewhere. (verb from noun jet )
If you’re not careful, some downloads can damage your computer. (noun from verb download )
OK, so the meeting’s on Tuesday. That’s a definite . (noun from adjective)
It’s a very big if and I’m not at all sure we can afford it. (noun from conjunction, meaning ‘it’s not at all certain’)
All companies have their ups and downs . (nouns from prepositions)
We also use conversion when we change a proper noun into a common noun:
Has anybody seen my Dickens ? (copy of a book by Dickens)Compounding
When we use compounding, we link together two or more bases to create a new word. Normally, the first item identifies a key feature of the second word. For example, the two bases back and ache can combine to form the compound noun backache. and the two bases post and card combine to form the compound noun postcard .
Compounds are found in all word classes. The most common types of compounds are: Nouns: car park, rock band
Adjectives: heartbreaking, sugar-free, airsick
Verbs: oven-bake, baby-sit, chain-smoke
Adverbs: good-naturedly, nevertheless
It is sometimes difficult to know where to put hyphens in words that are compound ed. It is also difficult to know whether to separate words (e.g. post box ) or to join the words (e.g. postbox ). In such cases, it is best to check in a good learner’s dictionary.Abbreviation
Abbreviation involves shortening a word. We do this in three main ways: clipping, acronyms and blends.
We use clipping when we shorten or ‘clip’ one or more syllables from a word. We also commonly clip proper names for people:
ad: advertisement, advert
Acronyms are a type of abbreviation formed when the initial letters of two or more words are combined in a way that produces consonant and vowel sequences found in words. Acronyms are normally pronounced as words:
RAM. r andom a ccess m emory (RAM is a term used to describe a computer’s memory.)
Initials are similar to acronyms but are pronounced as sets of letters, not as words:
We form blends when we combine parts of existing words to form a new word:Back-formation
We form words with back-formation when we remove part of a word, usually something which we think is a suffix (or occasionally a prefix). We do this commonly when we form verbs from nouns.
For example: to liaise (back-formed from the noun liaison ); to intuit (back-formed from the noun intuition ), to enthuse (back-formed from the noun enthusiasm ):
Can you liaise with Tim and agree a time for the meeting, please?
She’s always enthusing about her new teacher.Loan words and new words Loan words
Loan words are words that are borrowed from other languages. Some recent loan words for food taken from other languages include: sushi, tapas, chapatti, pizza. When we use loan words, we do not normally change them, though we do sometimes inflect them if they are singular countable nouns (pizzas, chapattis ). We also sometimes pronounce them more like English words, instead of using their original pronunciation.New words
Some prefixes are commonly used to create new words. In modern English the prefix e- is used to create new words that are connected with the Internet and the use of the Internet:
e-bank, e-cards, e-commerce, e-learning
Almost any noun may potentially combine with any other noun to form new noun compounds (e.g. computer virus. carbon footprint. quality time ).
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★ By reading the world we enter into our minds. ✡ People who diligently read like are looking past and future. Present in every history, and is present in every imagination of great people. ✣ One of the most valuable gift for your child is a pleasure to read. ✥ If you train your children to read, you're giving birth to great effect in the future. ✧ The books you read, it could be more valuable than a luxury car that is awarded to you. ✩ You will be aware that most of the solutions found today derived from past readings. ✫ By reading, you become a friend of great people. ✭ If you want to be great, then read books that write great people. Because tucked inside secrets of their success. ✯ Every book you read today will save you many times in the future. ☆ We pray to be given a way out. In fact, the way out has been a lot written in the books of quality. ✢ A lot of reading is a way to be a lucky person. ✤ Everyone is great to leave a legacy. And the most precious legacy they are embedded in their books. Fortunately for those who love to read, because they will get the most valuable legacy of great people. ✦ Every time you read, you become a new person. ✪ People are interested in finding a treasure. Though reading is finding the most valuable treasure. ✬ If the world is always closed to you then read, because reading is the door of the world. ✮ You may be living in the interior. But when you diligently read, you are more insightful than some cities. ✰The reading takes skill. And the ability to read is worth the investments in your life. ♦ In this world we will find many illusions. And reading would eliminate the illusion. ♥ If you are friends with a book, then you are never lonely. Because the book is able to make your life happy. ♠. Learn the language of letters, so you can read the writing. learn natural language, so that you can read millions of wisdom from nature. Learn the language of life, so that you can read the meaning of each event. ♣ Letters quality book never changed. But every time you read it, you always find a new sense wisdom as if it had never been written before. ⊗ Reading is an activity that makes miserable. Unless you have discovered the beauty of reading. ⊕ Reading is a fun activity, and produce pleasant things. Δ If you never read, then your understanding of the world is still hazy. ∴ People who diligently read the book have a long life. Because he was able to travel to thousands of years ago.Most Liked Audience
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In reference or relation to; with respect to.
In reference or relation to; with respect to.
[Middle English regarden. from Old French regarder. to look at. re-. re- + guarder. to guard, look at (of Germanic origin ; see guard ).]
Synonyms:regard, esteem, admiration, respect
These nouns refer to a feeling based on perception of and approval for the worth of a person or thing. Regard is the most general: "I once thought you had a kind of regard for her" (George Borrow).
Esteem connotes considered appraisal and positive regard: "The near-unanimity of esteem he enjoyed during his lifetime has by no means been sustained since" (Will Crutchfield).
Admiration is a feeling of keen approbation: "Greatness is a spiritual condition worthy to excite love, interest, and admiration" (Matthew Arnold).
Respect implies appreciative, often deferential regard resulting from careful assessment: The well-behaved children showed great respect for their teacher. See Also Synonyms at consider .
Usage Note:Regard is traditionally used in the singular in the phrase in regard (not in regards ) to. In our 2004 survey, barely six percent of the Usage Panel accepted the phrase in regards to. Slightly more than half the Panel found the syntactically peculiar as regards acceptable in the sentence These surveys show a high level of satisfaction with government policy among the elderly in the Scandinavian countries, especially as regards the medical services provided by the state. Sixty-seven percent accepted in regard to in the same sentence. The phrase with respect to is also standard in this use. Many Panelists said that they would prefer regarding over the other prepositions in these situations. The similar prepositional use of respecting is controversial. In our 2009 survey, 55 percent rejected the example You must follow all regulations respecting the use of the park. This usage has a somewhat old-fashioned ring to it and probably should be avoided.regard
1. to look closely or attentively at (something or someone); observe steadily
2. (tr ) to hold (a person or thing) in respect, admiration, or affection: we regard your work very highly.
3. (tr ) to look upon or consider in a specified way: she regarded her brother as her responsibility.
4. (tr ) to relate to; concern; have a bearing on
5. to take notice of or pay attention to (something); heed: he has never regarded the conventions.
6.as regards (preposition ) in respect of; concerning
8. attention; heed: he spends without regard to his bank balance.
9. esteem, affection, or respect
10. reference, relation, or connection (esp in the phrases with regard toorin regard to )
11. (plural ) good wishes or greetings (esp in the phrase with kind regards. used at the close of a letter)
12.in this regard on this point
[C14: from Old French regarder to look at, care about, from re- + garder to guard]re•gard
1. to look upon or think of with a particular feeling: to regard a person with favor.
2. to have or show respect or concern for.
3. to think highly of; esteem.
4. to take into account; consider.
5. to look at; observe.
6. to relate to; concern.
7. to see, look at, or conceive of in a particular way; judge: I regard every assignment as a challenge.
8. to pay attention.
9. to look or gaze.
10. reference; relation: to err with regard to facts.
11. an aspect, point, or particular: quite satisfactory in this regard.
12. thought; attention; concern.
14. respect, esteem, or deference.
15. kindly feeling; liking.
16.regards, sentiments of esteem or affection: Give them my regards.
1.as regards, concerning; about.
2.with or in regard to, with reference to; as regards; concerning.
[1350–1400; (n.) Middle English < Middle French, n. derivative of regarder to look at (compare reward ); (v.) late Middle English < Middle French regarder. See re -, guard ]
usage: The phrases as regards. in regard to. and with regard to are standard and occur in all varieties of spoken and written English, esp. in business writing: As regards your letter of January 19… However, these phrases are sometimes regarded as unwieldy substitutes for about or concerning. which may be easily substituted if desired. The phrases in regards to and with regards to are widely rejected as errors.regard
If you regard someone or something as a particular thing, you believe that they are that thing.
I regard it as one of my masterpieces.
Kenworthy did not regard himself as an expert on language.
You can also say that someone or something is regarded as being a particular thing or is regarded as having a particular quality.
The play was regarded as being of mixed merits.
The couple are regarded as having one of the strongest marriages in showbiz.regard
Past participle: regarded
[rɪˈgɑː r d]
(= care, concern ) → considération f
to have no regard for sth → n'avoir aucune considération pour qch
without regard to sth/sb → sans aucune considération pour qch/qn
(= respect, admiration ) → estime f
sb's regard for sb → l'estime que qn porte à qn, l'estime de qn pour qn
She was pleased by Hugh's regard for her parents → Elle était contente de l'estime que Hugh portait à ses parents. Elle était contente de l'estime de Hugh pour ses parents.
to have a high regard for sb → avoir beaucoup d'estime pour qn
(= aspect ) in this regard (= in this respect ) → à cet égard
to give one's regards to sb
Give my regards to Alice → Transmettez mon bon souvenir à Alice.
to send one's regards
Louis sends his regards → Vous avez le bonjour de Louis.
"with kind regards" → "bien cordialement "
I send this to you with kindest regards
BUT Je vous envoie ceci avec mes meilleurs sentiments.
vt (= consider ) → considérer
to regard sth as sth → considérer qch comme qch
I regard it as one of my masterpieces → Je le considère comme un de mes chefs-d'œuvre.
to regard sb as sth → considérer qn comme qch
I regard her as a genius → Je la considère comme un génie.
to regard sb with suspicion → considérer qn avec suspicion
to be regarded with some suspicion by sb → être considéré (e) avec une certaine suspicion par qn
He regarded drug dealers with loathing
BUT Il avait une profonde aversion pour les dealers.
to regard o.s. as sth → se considérer comme qch
She regards herself as something of an expert → Elle se considère comme une sorte d'expert.
those who regard themselves as agnostic or even atheist → ceux qui se considèrent agnostiques ou même athées
(= attention, concern) → Rücksicht f (→ for auf +acc ); to have some regard for somebody/something → auf jdn /etw Rücksicht nehmen ; to show little/no regard for somebody/something → wenig/keine Rücksichtnahme für jdn /etw zeigen ; with no regard for his safety → ohne Rücksicht auf seine Sicherheit (zu nehmen) ; without regard to or for her views → ohne sich um ihre Ansichten zu kümmern ; without regard to or for what people might think → ohne sich darum zu kümmern. was die Leute denken mochten
(= respect) → Achtung f ; to hold somebody in high regard → jdn achten or sehr schätzen ; to have a great regard for somebody → jdn hoch achtenregard
with regards is sometimes used in ending a letter.
with regard to means `about'.
n. respeto, consideración;
in ___ to → respecto a ;
a /ab / an (prefix) — not, without; abnormality, abolishment, abortion, absence, abstraction, absurdity, acquittal, alienation, amateur, amelioration, amnesia, amorality, anarchy, anesthesia, apathy, atheism, atheist
dis (prefix) — not; disability, disadvantage, disagreement, disappearance, disappointment, disarmament, disarray, disaster, disbelief, discharge, discomfort, discontent, discord, discouragement, discrimination, disdain, disenchantment, disengagement, disentanglement, disgrace, disgust, dishearten, dishonesty, disillusionment, disinterest, disjointedness, dislike, dismay, disobedience, disorder, disorderliness, disorientation, disparity, displeasure, disproportionate, disqualification, disregard, disrepair, disrespect, dissatisfaction, disservice, dissociation, dissolution, distaste, distrust, disuse
il (prefix) — not; illegality, illegibility, illegitimacy, illiteracy, illusion
im (prefix) — not; imbalance, immaturity, immobility, immodesty, immorality, impasse, impediment, imperfection, impertinence, impiety, impoliteness, impropriety, impurity
in (prefix) — not; inability, inconvenience, indecision, indigestion, indiscipline, indiscretion, inexperience, injunction, insanity, insecurity, insomnia, insubordination, invisibility
ir (prefix) — not; irrationality, irrelevance, irresistibility, irresponsibility, irreconcilability
non (prefix) — not, lacking; noncompliance, nonentity, nonexistence, nonfiction, nonintervention, nonpayment, nonproliferation, nonsense, non sequitur, nonviolence
un (prefix) — not; unearthing, unease, unemployment, unrest, unveiling
(Garner) (Merriam Webster) (Huddleston 19 5.5)
a (prefix) — not; amoral, amorphous, anesthetic, anorexia, anomalous, apathetic, apolitical, asymmetric, atheistic, atonal, atypical
dis (prefix) — not, bad, different; disabled, disadvantaged, disagreeable, discouraging, discourteous, discouraging, discriminating, disdainful, disenchanted, disengaged, disentangled, disgraced, disgruntled, disgusted, disheartened, dishonest, dishonored, disillusioned, disingenuous, disinherited, disinterested, disjointed, disliked, disloyal, dismal, dismayed, disobedient, disorderly disorientated, dispassionate, displeased, disproportionate, disproving, disqualified, disregarded, disrepair, disrespected, dissatisfied, dissimilar, dissociated, dissolved, distasteful
il (prefix) — not, lacking; illegal, illegitimate, illicit, illiterate, illogical
im (prefix) — not, lacking; immaterial, immature, immobile, immodest, immoral, immovable, immune, impartial, impassable, impatient, impeccable, impecunious, impenetrable, imperceptible, imperfect, impertinent, imperturbable, impervious, impetuous, impiety, impolite, impractical, impregnable, improbable, improper, impudent, impunity, impure
ir (prefix) — not, lacking; irrational, irreconcilable, irrefutable, irregular, irrelevant, irreparable, irreplaceable, irrepressible, irreproachable, irresistible, irresponsible, irrevocable
in (prefix) — not, lacking; inactive, inadequate, inadvertent, inanimate, inappropriate, inarticulate, inattentive inauspicious, incalculable, incapable, incessant, incommunicado, incomparable, incompatible, incompetence, incomplete, incomprehensible, inconceivable, inconclusive, inconsiderate, inconsistent, inconsolable, inconspicuous, inconvenient, incorrect, incorrigible, incorruptible, incredible, incredulous, incurable, indecent, indefensible, indefinable, indefinite, indelible, indelicate, indescribable, indestructible, indeterminate, indifferent, indigestible, indirect, indiscreet, indispensable, indisposed, indistinguishable, indivisible, indomitable, indubitable, inedible, infallible, ineffective, inefficient, inelegant, ineligible, inept, inescapable, inevitable, inexact, inexcusable, inexhaustible, inexpensive, inexperienced, inexpressible, infamous, injudicious, innocent, inoffensive, inopportune, inorganic, insane, insatiable, insecure, insensible, insensitive, inseparable, insufferable, insufficient, intangible, invisible
non (prefix) — not, lacking; nonaligned, nonchalant, noncombatant, nonconformist, nondescript, nonexistent, nonflammable, nonprofessional, nonprofit, nonsensical, nonstandard, nonstick, nonstop, nonviolent
un (prefix) — not; unable, unabridged, unaccompanied, unaccountable, unaffected, unAmerican, unapproachable, unarmed, unattached, unattended, unbalanced, unbearable, unbelievable unbending, unborn, unburdened, unbuttoned, uncertain, uncharitable, uncharted, unchecked, unclean, unclear, uncomfortable, uncommitted, uncommon, uncompromising, unconcerned, unconditional, unconscious, uncork, uncountable, uncovered, uncritical, uncut, undecided, undeniable, undone, undoubted, undressed, unearthed, uneasy, unemployed, unenlightened, unenviable, unequaled, unequivocal, uneven, unfailing unfaithful, unfavorable, untold, unforeseen, unfortunate, ungovernable, ungrateful, unhappy, unhealthy, unhelpful, uninhibited, unidentified, uninterrupted, unjust, unkind, unknown, unlawful, unlikely, unlocked, unlucky, unmistakable, unnatural, unnecessary, unpleasant, unprintable, unprofessional, unqualified, unreal, unreasonable, unrest, unrestrained, unroll, unruly, unsaid, unsanitary, unsavory, unscrupulous, unsettled, unshakable, unsightly, unskilled, unsophisticated, unspeakable, unthinkable, untidy, untimely, untruth, unused, unusual, unwell, unwise
(Garner) (Merriam Webster) (Huddleston 19 5.5)
¹An infinitive is currently analyzed as to (the subordinator) + plain form verb. Placing not before the verb is more emphatic. The grammar rule regarding not splitting infinitives has little or no support among current grammarians. (There is nothing to split since to is the infinitival subordinator and not part of the verb form.) See Nonfinite Infinitives and Spltting Verbs dispute.Express infrequency, negative opinion or evaluation Negative Adverbs
A neutral adverb may may express frequency (usually, often) time that is ongoing (still, already) manner that is agreeable (quickly, cleverly) stance (fortunately, luckily).
A New Dictionary of the English Language Containing Not Only the Explanation of Words with Their Orthography Etymology and Idiomatical Use in Writing But Likewise Their Orthoepia Or Pronunciation in Speech According to the Present Practice of Polished Speakers in the Metropolis which is Rendered Obvious at Sight in a Manner Perfectly Simple and Principally New To which is Prefixed a Rhetorical Grammar in which the Elements of Speech in General and Those of the English Tongue in Particular are Analysed and the Rudiments of Articulation Pronunciation and Prosody Intelligibly Displayed By William Kenrick LL D has been released by Read online / download as corverted from text to PDFA General Dictionary of the English Language One Main Object of Which Is to Establish a Plain and Permanent Standard of Pronunciation To which is Prefixed a Rhetorical Grammar By Thomas Sheridan A M
A General Dictionary of the English Language One Main Object of Which Is to Establish a Plain and Permanent Standard of Pronunciation To which is Prefixed a Rhetorical Grammar By Thomas Sheridan A M has been released by Read online / download as corverted from text to PDF
To discharge any thing so as to make it fly with speed or vio, lence z to discharge
from a bow or gun ; to let' _off; to emit new parts, as a vegetable; to emit, to dart or
thrust forth; to fit to each other by planning, a workman's term ; to pass through.
INTRODUCTION This book provides a thorough and precise account of all the major areas of English phonetics. It is primarily addressed to the students of linguistics to serve as a background and further reading text for the course of Theoretical Phonetics. A course of lectures is devoted to the sound system of English. It covers the following topics: distinctive features of English consonants - place and manner of articulation, voicing and nasality, the connection between spelling and sound, phonemes as abstract representations of sounds, vowels and their properties, diphthongs. A course of lectures also explores various aspects of syllable formation in English, stress tendencies in modern English, English rhythm and intonation, territorial varieties of English pronunciation. The aims of the book are as follows: to provide students with the starting point for subsequent in-depth analysis of the basic problems of theoretical phonetics of the language; to give extensive illustration of various points of view on phonetic phenomena; to summarize and to extend students’ knowledge of theoretical phonetics received at the lectures; to develop students’ ability to make some practical conclusions based on the given theoretical facts. The book offers clear and simple explanations of key theoretical concepts, supported by numerous step-by-step exercises and tests to help students experience with language, and thus to enhance their understanding of the subject matter. All phonetical terms, whether traditional or more recent, are carefully explained in Glossary. The list of references may be extended if necessary to provide a wider range of material for analysis and discussion. 4
communication. It studies not only individual speech sounds and their behaviour in the flow of speech, but the whole sound matter of a lan- guage: sounds, syllables, stress and intonation. The basic scope for phonetic studies is formed by phonetic units: speech sounds, syllables, word stress, rhythmic groups, phrases and spoken texts. These phonetic units act according to definite norms and rules of a language system, thus providing success of communication. They are small segments constituting a bigger entity called Speech. As a branch of linguistics, phonetics studies sound patterns, their pronunciation, mutual relations and modifications in speech, i.e. the way language functions as a «code» of communication. The units of the sound system (phonetic units) are realized in speech, thus making it the subject of phonetic studies. Methods. Phonetics studies speech, its physiological, acoustic, perceptive and functional features, i.e. all the aspects of language as a means of communication. As a field of science, phonetics takes the middle part between natural and social sciences, which calls forth various methods to be applied: - phonetic observation - instrumental analysis - statistical analysis Phonetic observation is understood as auditioning the test material, thus being a so-called auditory method. The method of observation belongs to the scope of subjec- tive methods of scientific investigation. As observation abilities of people are different, the results obtained from different hearers vary as well. However, such variations often lie in the same sphere and thus have regular character. Auditory phonetic investigation suggests surveying various groups of informants (test participants who audition the test material), phoneticians whose ear is «phonetically trained» and native speakers. The auditory analysis is carried out by the researcher who develops the tasks, assesses, summarizes and describes the results. The aim of this method is to find out what fea- tures in the speech flow are registered by the Listener’s brain as relevant for under- standing meaning («decoding» the message), and which ones are ignored as irrelevant. Instrumental methods originally applied in physiology and physics were intro- duced into phonetics in the 2nd half of the 20th century in order to supplement and in fact to rectify «subjective» data of auditory analysis resulting from «imperfection» of perceptual facilities of the human brain. Instrumental methods require special equip- 6
ment to register a) physiological and b) acoustic parameters of sounds and their se- quences, photograph and measure them. This is the reason for contrasting instrumental analysis to auditory observation as an objective method of study. The equipment ap- plied for studying physiology of speech included the following devices: - pnemograph, to study the work of muscles and breath; - electromiograph, to study bioelectric activity of respiratory apparatus, articulatory muscles and vocal cords; - labiograph, to study lip movements. To study acoustic quality of speech electro-acoustic equipment is required: - spectrograph, to analyze sound frequency and intensity; - intonograph, to analyze pitch variations; - Voice synthesizer, to produce speech.  The branch of phonetics that studies the way in which the air is set in motion, the movements of the speech organs and the coordination of these movements in the production of single sounds and trains of sounds is called articulatory phonetics. Acoustic phonetics studies the way in which the air vibrates between the speaker’s mouth and the listener’s ear. It presents special interest for research work and applied linguistics. The branch of phonetics investigating the hearing process is known as au- ditory phonetics. Its interests lie in the sensation of hearing, which is brain activity The means by which we discriminate sounds – quality, sensations of pitch, loudness, length, are relevant here. Instrumental phonetics were introduced into phonetics in the second half of the last century in order to supplement and to rectify the impressions deriving from the human senses. since these are affected by the limitations of the per- ceptual mechanism, and in general are rather subjective. Phoneticians cannot act only as describers and classifiers of the material form of phonetic units. They are also in- terested in the way in which sound phenomena function in a particular language, how they are utilized in that language and what part they play in manifesting the meaningful distinctions of the language The branch of phonetics that studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic structure, word accent and prosodic features, such as pitch, stress and tempo is called phonology. The phonetic system of a language is a set of phonetic units arranged in an orderly way to replace each other in a given framework. It contains two systems, or levels – segmental and suprasegmental, or pro- sodic, each of which is a specially organized language system with a certain number of 7
its units. Segmental units are elementary sounds, vowels and consonants, which form the vocalic and consonantal subsystems. Prosodic units are syllables, rhythmic units, and intonation groups, utterances, which form subsystems of pitch, stress, rhythm, tempo, and pauses. Segmental and prosodic units serve to form and differentiate units of other subsystems of language, the lexical and grammatical units. Overview of the Human Speech Mechanism Human speech is complex, and lay people are not used to describing it in techni- cal ways. On the other hand, many people have some inkling of how to describe music. We could describe the rhythm (where are the beats? what is the tempo?), the melodic structure (what key is it in? what scale does it use? are there recurrent themes?), instru- mentation, and so forth. All of these are different aspects of music, and all of them con- tribute to the totality of what we hear. Describing speech is a similarly complex task. Speech involves the careful coordination of the lips, tongue, vocal folds, breath- ing and so on. The signal that we perceive as successive sounds arises from skills that we learn over years of our lives, even as our bodies grow and age. In producing even the simplest of speech sounds, we are co-ordinating a large number things. Phonetics involves something like unpicking the sounds of speech and working out how all the components work together, what they do, and when.  In accordance with their linguistic function the organs of speech may be grouped as follows: The respiratory or power mechanism furnishes the flow of air which is the first requisite for the production of speech sounds. This mechanism is formed by the lungs, the wind-pipe and the bronchi. The air-stream expelled from the lungs provides the most usual source of energy which is regulated by the power mechanism. Regulating the force of the air-wave the lungs produce variations in the intensity of speech sounds. Syllabic pulses and dynamic stress, both typical of English, are directly related to the behaviour of the muscles which activate this mechanism. From the lungs through the wind-pipe the air-stream passes to the upper stages of the vocal tract. First of all it passes to the larynx containing the vocal cords. The function of the vocal cords consists in their role as a vibrator set in motion by the air-stream sent by the lungs. At least two actions of the vocal cords as a vibrator should be mentioned. The opening between the vocal cords is known as the glottis. 8
When the glottis is tightly closed and the air is sent up below it the so-called glottal stop is produced. It often occurs in English when it reinforces or even replaces [p], [t], or [k] or even when it precedes the energetic articulation of vowel sounds. The most important speech function of the vocal cords is their role in the production of voice. The effect of voice is achieved when the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate when subjected to the pressure of air passing from the lungs. This vibration is caused by compressed air forcing an opening of the glottis and the following reduced air- pressure permitting the vocal cords to come together again. The height of the speaking voice depends on the frequency of the vibrations. The more frequently the vocal cords vibrate the higher the pitch is. The typical speaking voice of a woman is higher than that of a man because the vocal cords of a woman vibrate more frequently. We are able to vary the rate of the vibration thus producing modifications of the pitch component of intonation. More than that, we are able to modify the size of the puff of air which escapes at each vibration of the vocal cords, that is we can alter the amplitude of the vibration which causes changes of the loudness of the sound heard by the listener. From the larynx the air-stream passes to supraglottal cavities, that is to the pharynx, the mouth and the nasal cavities. The shapes of these cavities modify the note pro- duced in the larynx thus giving rise to particular speech sounds.  Fig.1. Simplified speech production model 9
Human speech is the result of a highly complicated series of events that can be di- vided into 6 stages: psychological, physiological, physical/ acoustic, reception, trans- mission, linguistic interpretation. They are interconnected and constitute two parts of the speech act. I. The first part of the speech act contains the stages made by the speaker. It includes the following: 1) the psychological stage concerns the formation of the concept in the brain of a speaker; 2) when the message is formed, it is transmitted along the nervous system to the speech organs which produce particular speech sounds within the physiological stage; 3) the movements of the speech apparatus disturb the air and produce sound waves during the acoustic stage. II. The second part of the speech act includes the stages made by the listener, because any communication requires a listener as well as a speaker: 1) the sound waves are percepted by the listener’s ear within the reception stage; 2) the spoken message is transmitted through the nervous system to the listener’s brain during the transmission stage; 3) the information conveyed gets its linguistic interpretation.  Aspects of Speech Sound Phemomena All sounds are produced by movement of molecules (typically of air); they move in a vibrating-like fashion, creating periods of rarefaction (farther apart) and compression (closer together) between molecules. Together, one rarefaction and one compression of air molecules make up a cycle. As vibrations move through the air, they create many cycles that, as a whole, can be referred to as a wave. The speed of the vibrations (compression + rarefaction) is called the frequency and is a very common measure of sound. The unit of measurement for frequency is Hertz (Hz) and 1 Hz is equal to 1 cycle/second. Humans are typically able to detect sound waves with frequencies of 20-20,000 Hz traveling through air. Characteristics of Speech Sounds. The frequency of a wave refers to the number of times a waveform completes one full cycle within a second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz), which is equal to the number of cycles per second. Frequency is the more objective term for pitch, which can some- 10
All objects have a natural frequency or set of frequencies at which they vibrate. Some objects tend to vibrate at a single frequency and they are often said to pro- duce a pure tone. A flute tends to vibrate at a single frequency, producing a very pure tone. Other objects vibrate and produce more complex waves with a set of frequencies which have a whole number mathematical relationship between them; these are said to produce a rich sound. When a meter stick or pencil is dropped on the floor, a vibrates with a number of frequencies, producing a complex sound wave which is clanky and noisy. The actual frequency at which an object will vibrate at is determined by a variety of factors. Each of these factors will either effect the wavelength or the speed of the object. Some computer programs allow you to view sound waves recorded with a micro- phone . These waves below were recorded with a free downloaded wave editing program. Airplane Telephone Ring Clock Ticking Bell Fig.2. Soundwaves of Common Objects. Screenshot of the Soundblaster Wave Studio 12
It is due to quality of sound that we can differentiate one musical instrument from another, or likewise one voice from another when dealing with speech. The quality of a sound depends on the shape and material of the propagating and closing media. Using music as an example, the trumpet, a brass instrument, sounds different compared clarinet, a wooden instrument, or the vocal tract (as used by singers), but the saxophone, another brass instrument, has a similar sound. Thus, the material of the ap- paratus can create a distinct sound class that can be further divided by shape. Different shapes lead to different harmonics. We learned that the fundamental frequency under- lies the harmonics of a sound and provides the basic frequency of a sound. Thus, dif- ferent harmonics, caused by different apparatus shapes, create different sounds. These changes are are considered to be changes in quality. There is also some evidence that varieties of English have habitual settings for voice quality: that is, speakers belonging to certain sociolinguistic groups share a com- mon voice quality. None the less, there remains much work to be done on the function and use of voice quality in English. Breathy voice is produced by incomplete closure along the length of the vocal folds as they vibrate. There is an opening which allows air to flow out during voicing, generating both voicing and some friction noise. Breathy voice impressionistically is ‘soft’, and tends to be quieter than modal (‘normal’) voicing. In English-speaking cultures it is often associated with female speakers, and is often exploited in e.g. adverts for chocolate or cosmetics. Many people (of either gender) regularly use a slightly breathy setting in their ordinary speech.  Creaky voice can be produced in a number of ways. It involves closure along the vocal folds leaving an opening at the front end; the folds are loosely pressed together and are thicker than in other settings. The subglottal pressure is often low. Creak often leads to a more irregular pattern of vibration, and always to a slower one than is normal for the speaker. Whisper is produced by narrowing the vocal vocal folds so that the glottis is not closed, and the folds do not vibrate; none the less the glottis is narrow enough so that when air passes through it, the airflow becomes turbulent. Whisper is used by speakers as a way to speak ‘quietly’, or ‘secretively’: this seems to be a very widespread practice among linguistic communities. 13
Falsetto involves the raising of a speaker’s average f0 to way beyond their normal range. To produce falsetto, the vocal folds are stretched and lengthened and the glottis is not completely closed. Falsetto can be used in singing, but also occurs in conversational speech. There are some differences in ‘articulatory settings’ – that is, in the habitual postures that speakers use throughout their speech. Here we list some of the main ones. Male speakers have overall a more nasalized setting than female speakers: they keep the velum slightly lowered, allowing nasal escape of air. Working-class speakers tend to speak with a more open jaw, with a more raised and backed tongue body, perhaps also with their tongue roots more retracted: this gives the auditory effect of a constriction in the throat and makes speech sound lower in pitch and harsher in tone. Middle-class speakers have no particular traits, just an absence of working-class ones. Voice quality, then, can be used as a sociolinguistic marker.  Units of Phonetic System The phonetic system of a language is a set of units arranged in an orderly way to replace each other in a given framework. Phonetics in general is divided in two sub- systems: segmental phonetics which is concerned with minimal segments of speech and suprasegmental phonetics which deals with larger speech units. Segmental units of phonetics include phonemes and their allophones as the representation of individual sounds. Suprasegmental units are syllables, word-stress, and prosodic (intonational) phenomena (pith, stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses). Both segmental and suprasegmental units are used to form words, phrases and utterances in connected speech. The phonetic system of any language comprises 4 components: phonemic, syllabic, accentual and intonational. The first is the phonemic component. It is the basic component represented by the system of segmental phonemes of a language existing in the material form of their allophones. It may have manifestations in: — the system of phonemes as discrete isolated units; — the distribution of allophones of different phonemes; — the methods of joining speech sounds. The second component is the syllabic structure of words. It has two manifestations which are inseparable from each other: syllable formation and syllable division. The 14
third component is the accentual structure of words when pronounced in isolation. Its main manifestations are: — the acoustic nature of word stress; — the stress position in disyllabic and polysyllabic words; — the degrees of word stress. The fourth component is the intonational structure of utterances with the following manifestations: — the prosodic components of intonation; — the structure of intonation patterns; — the representation of patterns in intonation groups. All the components of the phonetic system of the language constitute its pronunciation.[3, c.14-15] Linguistic Concept of the Phoneme. Allophones. Phones In human language, a phoneme (from the Greek: φώνημα. phōnēma, “a sound uttered”) is the smallest posited structural unit that distinguishes sounds. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but, in theoretical terms, cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them. An example of a phoneme is the /t/ sound in the words tip, stand, water, and cat. (In transcription, phonemes are placed between slashes, as here.) These instances of /t/ are considered to fall under the same sound category despite the fact that in each word they are pronounced somewhat differently. The difference may not even be audible to native speakers, or the audible differences not perceived. That is, a phoneme may encompass several recognizably different speech sounds, called phones. In our example, the /t/ in tip is aspirated, [tʰ], while the /t/ in stand is not, [t]. (In transcription, speech sounds that are not phonemes are placed in brackets, as here.) In many languages, such as Korean and Spanish, these phones are different phonemes: For example, /tol/ is “stone” in Korean, whereas /tʰol/ is “grain of rice”. In Spanish, there is no aspirated [tʰ], but the phone in American English writer is similar to the Spanish r /ɾ/ and contrasts with Spanish /t/. A phoneme is the unit of functional phonetics, which serves communicative purposes. The phoneme as a functional unit performs the distinctive function. It distin- 15
guishes different sounds in a contrastive sense and serves as the smallest language unit that discriminates between larger language units. Thus, the opposition of phonemes in the same phonetic environment differentiates the meaning of morphemes, words and even sentences. E.g. sleeper — sleepy; bath — path, light — like; He was heard badly — He was hurt badly. The phoneme is a material, real and objective unit that performs the constitutive function. The phoneme is realized in speech in the form of its variants or allophones, which do not make meaningful distinctions and serve to constitute the material form of morphemes. The phoneme is also an abstract and generalized unit, which performs the re- cognitive function. The phoneme serves to distinguish and understand the meaning, because the use of the right allophone in the certain phonetic context helps the listener to understand the message and thus facilitates normal recognition. E.g. take it — tape it — the difference in two phrases is understood by two different phonemes.  Phones that belong to the same phoneme, such as [t] and [tʰ] for English /t/, are called allophones. A common test to determine whether two phones are allophones or separate phonemes relies on finding minimal pairs: words that differ by only the phones in question. For example, the words tip and dip illustrate that [t] and [d] are separate phonemes, /t/ and /d/, in English, whereas the lack of such a contrast in Korean (/tʰata/ is pronounced [tʰada], for example) indicates that in this language they are allophones of a phoneme /t/. An allophone (from the Greek: ἄλλος állos, “other” and φωνή, phōnē, “voice, sound”) is one of several similar speech sounds (phones) that belong to the same phoneme. A phoneme is an abstract unit of speech sound that can distinguish words: That is, changing a phoneme in a word can produce another word. Speakers of a particular language perceive a phoneme as a distinctive sound in that language. An allophone is not distinctive, but rather a variant of a phoneme; changing the allophone won’t change the meaning of a word, but the result may sound non-native, or be un- intelligible. There are two types of allophones: principal and subsidiary. If an allophone retains the typical articulatory characteristics of the phoneme, it is called a principal 16
widely in the way of representing the sounds of a language, it is essential to have a common writing system one that can be abstracted from actual languages for the de- scription of sounds. Besides teaching you how to represent sounds correctly, transcrip- tion also helps you train your ear so that you can pick up more detail from whatever stream of speech you are listening to. Principles of Classification of Speech Sounds Every nation that speaks a certain language has definite and quite obligatory ways of the articulation of the sounds. Sometimes these ways coincide in different languages but more often they are different. The habitual way of the articulation of all the sounds of a definite language is called by the term the articulation basis of the language. The articulation basis of English differs from that of Russian: voiced consonants are less energetic, whereas voiceless ones are much more energetic; the lips do not protrude; the tongue is slightly drawn back. The phonation habits of the native speakers of different languages may differ depending on character of sounds. In all languages speech sounds are traditionally divided into two main types – vowels and consonants. From the articulatory point of view the main principles of the division are as follows: 1. the presence or absence of obstruction; 2. the distribution of muscular tension; 3. the force of the stream of air coming from the lungs. Vowels are speech sounds based on voice which is modified in the supralaringeal cavities. There is no obstruction in their articulation. The muscular tension is spread evenly throughout the speech organs. The force of the stream of air is rather weak. Consonants are speech sounds in the articulation of which there is an obstruction, the removal of which causes noise, plosion or friction. The muscular tension is concentrated at the place of obstruction. The stream of air is strong. The articulatory boundary between vowels and consonants is not well- marked. There exist speech sounds that occupy an intermediate position between vowels and consonants. These are sonorants [m,n,n,l,w,r,]. The wide passage for the stream of air in the articulation of sonorants means that the oral and nasal cavities are active. The classification of English consonants. In the English consonant system there are 24 consonants. The quality of the consonants depends on several aspects: 1. the work of the vocal cords; 2. what cavity is used as a resonator; 3. the force of the articulation and some other factors. There are some principles of consonant classification: 1. the 18
type of obstruction and the manner of production of noise. We distinguish 2 classes of consonants: a) occlusive c. in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed; b) constrictive c. in the production of which an incomplete obstruction is formed. Each of the two classes is subdivided into noise consonants and sonorants. Noise consonants are divided into plosives (or stops) and affricates and constrictive sounds. Sonorants are divided into occlusive and constrictive sounds. Constrictive sonorants may be medial and lateral. Another principle is the place of articulation. Consonants are classed into 1) labial, 2) lingual, 3) glottal. The first class is subdivided into a) bilabial; b) labio- dental; the second class is subdivided into: a) fore lingual, b) mediolingual, c)back lingual. The next principle is the presence or absence of voice which depends on the work of the vocal cords. All voiced consonants are weak (lenis) and all voiceless c. are strong (fortis). The next principle is the position of the soft palate. According to this, E. consonants can be oral and nasal.(m,n,n). According to the stability consonants are monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids. The classification of English vowels. In the English vowel system there are 12 vowel monophthongs and 8 or 9 diphthongs. The quality of a vowel depends, first of all, on its stability, on the tongue position, lip position character of the vowel end, length, tenseness. 1. According to this principle English vowels are subdivided into monophthongs, b) diphthongs, c) diphthongoids.[ I ], [ u ]. According to the position of the tongue vowels are classed from vertical and horizontal planes. From the horizontal plane vowels are divided into. 1. front; 2. front-retracted ; 3.central ; 4. back ; 5. back- advanced. From the vertical plane English vowels are divided into: 1. close; 2. mid; 3. open. Each class has wide and narrow variations. According to the lip rounding vowels have 3 positions: spread, neutral, rounded. The next point is checkness. All E. short vowels are checked when stressed. The degree of checkness depends on the following consonant. All long vowels are free. According to the length E. vowels are traditionally divided into short and long vowels, it is a historical phenomenon. Besides, there exists the positional length of vowels, depending on the position of a vowel in a word. From the point of view of tenseness all historically long vowels are tense, while short vowels are lax. The diphthong theory. The phonemic status of English diphthongs is still a question of discussion. Diphthongs are complex units of the two elements which are closely blended together. They are syllabically indivisible,the length of diphthongs 19
is the same as that of English long vowels. In Russian there are no diphthongs, only combinations of sounds where both elements are equally energetic and distinct. English diphthongs consist of two elements, the first of which is a nucleus, strong and distinct; the second is a glide, which is very weak and indistinct. There exist languages where the second element of a diphthong is a nucleus, being strong and distinct, while the first element is weak and indistinct.(Italian, Latvian- piano, ruoka). Such diphthongs are considered to be false and rising, while English diphthongs are considered to be true and falling. There are 8 English diphthongs: close |ie|, |ue|; mid |ou|, |ei|; open |ea|, |oi|, |ai|, |au|. They are characterized according to the tongue position and the position of the lips. Phonetic Phenomena: Sound Alternations and Modifications In modern English consonants undergo various qualitative changes in the chain of speech. All speech sounds influence each other and modify the process of sound production. Phonemic variations are generally termed ‘sound alternations’. They include changes between related phonemes and have great phonological value. Allophonic variations in the phonetic sequence are called ‘sound modifications’. Accommodation is the adaptive modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighbouring vowel which includes the following changes: — labialization of consonants under the influence of the following back vowels [ o. u, u. a:], resulting in lip rounding (pool, rude, ball, car); — labialization of consonants under the influence of the following or preceding front vowels [i:], resulting in lip spreading (tea — eat, feet — leaf. keep — leak, pill — tip); — palatalization of consonants under the influence of front vowels [ı, i:] (cf: part — pit, top — tip, far — feet, hard — hit, chance —cheese). Elision is a complete loss of sound in the word structure in connected speech. The following examples of consonant elision are observed in modern English: — loss of [h] in personal and possessive pronouns he, his, her, hers and the forms of the auxiliary verb have (What has he done?); — loss of [l] when preceded by [o:] (always); 20
— loss of plosives [p, t, k, b, d, g] in clusters followed by another consonant (next day, just one, last time, old man); — loss of [θ, d] in clusters with [s, z, f, v] (months, clothes, fifth, sixth); — loss of [v] before other consonants in rapid speech (give me your pen). Insertion is a process of sound addition to the word structure. There are the follow- ing cases of this consonant modification type in English: — linking [r], which reveals its potential pronunciation (car-owner); — intrusive [r] pronounced in word combinations with vowels in the word-final and word-starting positions (china-and glass); — inserted [j] after word-final diphthongs gliding to [ı] (saying, trying); — inserted [w] after word-final diphthongs gliding to [u] (going, allowing); — inserted [t∫, ] instead of word-final [t, d] before [j] (could you). [3, c.55] Assimilation. The articulation of one sound affects the articulation of the neighbouring one as- similating the latter. There are four types of assimilation: 1) assimilation affecting the direction; 2) assimilation affecting the place of obstruction; 3) assimilation affecting the position of the lips; 4) assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords. The first type is divided into three subtypes: progressive, regressive, and double (reciprocal) assimilation. a) Progressive assimilation happens when the preceding sound affects the articula- tion of following one, and the preceding sound remains unchanged. For example: looked [lukt] b) Regressive assimilation happens when the following sound affects articulation of the preceding one. c) Double assimilation means complex mutual influence of the ad- jacent sounds. For example: tree, try. ↔ ↔ [tri:] [traı] [3, c.155] 21
The Syllable Construction in English Words can be cut up into units called syllables. Humans seem to need syllables as a way of segmenting the stream of speech and giving it a rhythm of strong and weak beats, as we hear in music. Syllables don’t serve any meaning-signalling function in language; they exist only to make speech easier for the brain to process. A word contains at least one syllable. Most speakers of English have no trouble dividing a word up into its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is divided might vary from one individual to another, but a division is always easy and always possible. Here are some words divided into their component syllables (a period is used to mark the end of a syllable): tomato = to.ma.to window = win.dow The syllable can be studied on four levels: acoustic, articulatory, auditory and functional. On the articulatory level, we could start with the so-called expiratory theory of R.H. Stetson. For him expiration in speech is a pulsation process and each syllable corresponds to a single expiration, so the number of syllables in an utterance is determined by a number of expirations. Another theory is put forward by O. Jesperson. It is called the sonority theory. According to it, each sound is characterized by a certain degree of sonority which is understood as acoustic property of a sound that determines its perception, so the most sonorous sounds tend to form the centre of the syllable and the least sonorous- the marginal segments. There exist a great number of other theories, such as F. de Saussure’ theory, A. Rosetti’s, Hala’s. The problem is still under discussion. In our country there has been adopted L.V. Scerba’s theory of muscular tension. The energy increases within the range of prevocalic consonants and then decreases within the range of postvocalic consonants. However, the majority of linguists treat the syllable as the smallest pronounceable unit which can reveal some linguistic function. So, a syllable is a chain of phonemes of varying length; it is constructed on the basis of contrast of its constituents, which is usually the vowel- consonant type; the nucleus of a syllable is a vowel, the presence of consonants is optional; the distribution of phonemes in the syllabic structure follows the rules which are specific enough for a particular language. Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel- consonant. Vowels are usually syllabic while consonants are not, with the exception of [l], [m], [n], which are syllabic in some cases [garden]. The other aspect of the dialectical unity is syllable division. The linguistic importance of syllable division in different languages is in finding typology 22
of syllables and syllabic structure of meaningful units of a language that is morphemes and words… There are two functions of the syllable. 1. The constitutive function. It lies in the ability to be a part of a word or a word itself. 2. The distinctive function. The syllable is characterized by its ability to differentiate words and word-forms. The Nature of English Word Stress. Sentence Stress The sequence of syllables in the word is not pronounced identically. The syllable or syllables which are pronounced with more prominence than the other syllables of the word are said to be stressed or accented. The correlation of varying prominences of syllables in a word is understood as the accentual structure of the word. According to A.C. Gimson, the effect of prominence is achieved by any or all of four factors: force, tone, length and vowel colour. The dynamic stress implies greater force with which the syllable is pronounced. In other words in the articulation of the stressed syllable greater muscular energy is produced by the speaker. The European languages such as English, German, French, Russian are believed to possess predominantly dynamic word stress. In Scandinavian languages the word stress is considered to be both dynamic and musical (e.g. in Swedish, the word komma (comma) is distinguished from the word komma (come) by a difference in tones). The musical (tonic) word stress is observed in Chinese, Japanese. It is effected by the variations of the voice pitch in relation to neighbouring syllables. In Chinese the sound sequence “chu” pronounced with the level tone means “pig”, with the rising tone “bamboo”, and with the falling tone “to live”. It is fair to mention that there is a terminological confusion in discussing the nature of stress. According to D. Crystal, the terms “heaviness, intensity, amplitude, prominence, emphasis, accent, stress” tend to be used synonymously by most writers. The discrepancy in terminology is largely due to the fact that there are 2 major views depending on whether the productive or receptive aspects of stress are discussed. The main drawback with any theory of stress based on production of speech is that it only gives a partial explanation of the phenomenon but does not analyze it on the perceptive level. Instrumental investigations study the physical nature of word stress. On the 23
acoustic level the counterpart of force is the intensity of the vibrations of the vocal cords of the speaker which is perceived by the listener as loudness. Thus the greater energy with which the speaker articulates the stressed syllable in the word is associated by the listener with greater loudness. The acoustic counterparts of voice pitch and length are frequency and duration respectively. The nature of word stress in Russian seems to differ from that in English. The quantitative component plays a greater role in Russian accentual structure than in English word accent. In the Russian language of full formation and full length in unstressed positions, they are always reduced. Therefore the vowels of full length are unmistakably perceived as stressed. In English the quantitative component of word stress is not of primary importance because of the non-reduced vowels in the unstressed syllables which sometimes occur in English words (e.g. “transport”, “architect”). In discussing accentual structure of English words we should turn now to the functional aspect of word stress. In language the word stress performs 3 functions: 1) constitutive – word stress constitutes a word, it organizes the syllables of a word into a language unit. A word does not exist without the word stress. Thus the function is constitutive – sound continuum becomes a phrase when it is divided into units organized by word stress into words. 2) Word stress enables a person to identify a succession of syllables as a definite accentual pattern of a word. This function is known as identificatory (or recognitive). 3) Word stress alone is capable of differentiating the meaning of words or their forms, thus performing its distinctive function. The accentual patterns of words or the degrees of word stress and their positions form oppositions (“/import – im /port”, “/ present – pre /sent”). There are actually as many degrees of word stress in a word as there are syllables. The British linguists usually distinguish three degrees of stress in the word. The primary stress is the strongest (e.g. exami/nation), the secondary stress is the second strongest one (e.g. ex,ami/nation). All the other degrees are termed “weak stress”. Unstressed syllables are supposed to have weak stress. The American scholars, B. Bloch and J. Trager, find 4 contrastive degrees of word stress: locid, reduced locid, medial and weak. In Germanic languages the word stress originally fell on the initial syllable or the second syllable, the root syllable in the English words with prefixes. This tendency 24
syllables are like the beats of the metronome: regular, loud, and clear. The unstressed syllables between the beats are shortened, obscured, and joined together. To preserve speech rhythm, all unstressed vowels in the sentence become shorter and less distinct. Completely unstressed vowels in unstressed syllables become very short and are often pronounced as the neutral sound. In some cases, the neutral sound may be dropped, for example, can [kən], [kn], BAKery [‘beikəri], [‘beikri]. Intonation and Rhythm in English The term intonation refers to a means for conveying information in speech which is independent of the words and their sounds. Central to intonation is the modulation of pitch, and intonation is often thought of as the use of pitch over the domain of the utterance. However, the patterning of pitch in speech is so closely bound to patterns of timing and loudness, and sometimes voice quality, that we cannot consider pitch in isolation from these other dimensions. The interaction of intonation and stress — the patterns of relative prominence which characterise an utterance — is particularly close in many languages, including English. Intonation is used to carry a variety of different kinds of information. It signals grammatical structure, though not in a one-to-one way; whilst the end of a complete intonation pattern will normally coincide with the end of a grammatical structure such as a sentence or clause, even quite major grammatical boundaries may lack intonational marking, particularly if the speech is fast. Intonation can reflect the information structure of an utterance, highlighting constituents of importance. Intonation can indicate discourse function; for instance most people are aware that saying ‘This is the Leeds train’ with one intonation constitutes a statement, but, with another, a question. Intonation can be used by a speaker to convey an attitude such as friendliness, enthusiasm, or hostility; and listeners can use intonation-related phenomena in the voice to make inferences about a speaker’s state, including excitement, depression, and tiredness. Intonation can also, for instance, help to regulate turn-taking in conversation, since there are intonational mechanisms speakers can use to indicate that they have had their say, or, conversely, that they are in full flow and don’t want to be interrupted. On perceptional level intonation is a complex, a whole, formed by significant variations of pitch, loudness and tempo closely related. Some linguists regard speech timber as the fourth component of intonation. Though it certainly conveys some shades 26
of attitudinal or emotional meaning there’s no reason to consider it alongside with the 3 prosodic components of intonation (pitch, loudness and tempo). Nowadays the term “prosody” substitutes the term “intonation”. On the acoustic level pitch correlates with the fundamental frequency of the vibrations of the vocal cords; loudness correlates with the amplitude of vibrations; tempo is a correlate of time during which a speech unit lasts. The auditory level is very important for teachers of foreign languages. Each syllable of the speech chain has a special pitch colouring. Some of the syllables have significant moves of tone up and down. Each syllable bears a definite amount of loudness. Pitch movements are inseparably connected with loudness. Together with the tempo of speech they form an intonation pattern which is the basic unit of intonation. An intonation pattern contains one nucleus and may contain other stressed or unstressed syllables normally preceding or following the nucleus. The boundaries of an intonation pattern may be marked by stops of phonation, that is temporal pauses. Intonation patterns serve to actualize syntagms in oral speech. The syntagm is a group of words which are semantically and syntactically complete. In phonetics they are called intonation groups. The intonation group is a stretch of speech which may have the length of the whole phrase. But the phrase often contains more than one into- nation group. The number of them depends on the length of phrase and the degree of semantic impotence or emphasis given to various parts of it. The position of intonation groups may affect the meaning. The communicative function of intonation is realized in various ways which can be grouped under five – six general headings: 1) to structure the intonation content of a textual unit. So as to show which information is new or can not be taken for granted, as against information which the listener is assumed to possess or to be able to acquire from the context, that is given information; 2) to determine the speech function of a phrase, to indicate whether it is intended as a statement, question, etc; 3) to convey connotational meanings of attitude, such as surprise, etc. In the written form we are given only the lexics and the grammar; 4) to structure a text. Intonation is an organizing mechanism. It divides texts into smaller parts and on the other hand it integrates them forming a complete text; 27
5) to differentiate the meaning of textual units of the same phonetic structure and the same lexical composition (distinctive or phonological function); 6) to characterize a particular style or variety of oral speech which may be called a stylistic function. Classification of intonation patterns: Different combinations of pitch sections (pre-heads, heads and nuclei) may result in more than one hundred pitch-and-stress patterns. But it is not necessary to deal with all of them, because some patterns occur very rarely. So, attention must be concentrated on the commonest ones: 1. The Low (Medium) Fall pitch-and-stress group 2. The High Fall group 3. Rise Fall group 4. The Low Rise group 5. The High Rise group 6. The Fall Rise group 7. The Rise-Fall-Rise group 8. The Mid-level group No intonation pattern is used exclusively with this or that sentence type. Some sentences are more likely to be said with one intonation pattern than with any other. So we can speak about “common intonation” for a particular type of sentence. a) Statements are most widely used with the Low Fall preceded by the Falling or the High level Head. They are final, complete and definite. b) Commands, with the Low Fall are very powerful, intense, serious and strong. c) Exclamations are very common with the High Fall. Rhythm, actually, is timing patterns among syllables. However, the timing patterns are not the same in all languages. There are, particularly, two opposite types of rhythm in languages: stress-timed and syllable-timed. Stress-timed rhythm is determined by stressed syllables, which occur at regular intervals of time, with an uneven and chang- ing number of unstressed syllables between them; syllable-timed rhythm is based on the total number of syllables since each syllable takes approximately the same amount of time. English, with an alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables, is obviously stress-timed, while Chinese, for instance, with nearly equal weight and time in all syl- lables, is syllable-timed. These two languages, therefore, are very different in rhythm. 28
Pronunciation is important. 發 音 很 重 要 Fig.3. The difference between the English rhythm and the Chinese rhythm. In the above illustration (Fig.3), the English rhythm is composed of adults (stressed syllables) and children (unstressed syllables), which suggests that English has different syllable length and weight; by contrast, the Chinese rhythm is composed of soldiers (each soldier represents a syllable), which suggests that Chinese has the same length and weight in all syllables.  The distribution of syllables within rhythmic groups is unequal and the regularity is provided by strong ‘beats’. The more unstressed syllables there are after a stressed one, the quicker they must be pronounced. The peculiarities of English rhythm implying the regular stress-timed pulses of speech, create the abrupt effect of English rhythm. It has the immediate connection with such phonetic phenomena as vowel reduction and elision, placement of word- stress and sentence-stress. The effect of English rhythm is also presupposed by the analytical structure of the language. It explains greater prominence of notional words and a considerable number of unstressed monosyllabic form words. [3, c. 100] Social and Territorial Varieties of English Pronunciation It is common knowledge that between 375 million people now speak English as their first language / mother tongue. It is the national language of Great Britain, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada (part of it). Nowadays two main types of English are spoken in the English-speaking world: English English and American English. 29
According to British dialectologists (P. Trudgill, J. Hannah, A. Hughes and oth- ers) the following variants of English are referred to the English-based group: English English, Welsh English, Australian English, New Zealand English; to the American- based group: United States English, Canadian English. Scottish English and Irish English fall somewhere between the two being some- what by themselves. British English Accents English English Scottish English Northern Welsh English Educated Sc.English 30 Regional Ireland Varieties English Southern Southern East Anglia South-West Northern 1. Northern 2. Yorkshire 3. North-West 4. West Midland
Every national variety of the language falls into territorial or regional dialects. Dialects are distinguished from each other by differences in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. When we refer to varieties in pronunciation only, we use the word “accent”. The social differentiation of language is closely connected with the social differentiation of society. Every language community, ranging from a small group to a nation has its own social dialect, and consequently, its own social accent. The “language situation” may be spoken about in terms of the horizontal and vertical differentiations of the language, the first in accordance with the sphere of social activity, the second – with its situational variability. Situational varieties of the language are called functional dialects or functional styles and situational pronunciation varieties – situational accents or phonostyles. A lingua franca is a language used as a means of communication by speakers who do not have a native language in common. Originally it was a special case when a foreign language was used as the medium of linguistic communication in some area, e.g. for trade purposes (literally ‘language of the Franks’, the Arabic term of the day for all Europeans). The largest world lingua francas in use today include English and Mandarin Chinese. A pidgin language is the language used for the purpose of communication between speakers of mutually unintelligible languages (usually in the Third World) which has been developed out of the mixture of the languages of the communities concerned (e.g. Papua New Guinea Pidgin English, Chinese Pidgin). As such, it would have no native speakers. The origin of the term Pidgin is thought to be “a Chinese corruption of English business” [The Oxford English Dictionary 1999]. The citations from OED suggest that the spelling pigeon was commoner than pidgin in the 19th century, when European traders were active on the South China Coast, and appears to be the origin of the expression That’s not my pigeon (= That’s not my business /concern). It is only in the later twentieth century that it has acquired the neutral, technical sense of’ a contact language which draws on elements from two or more languages. The Oxford Companion to the English Language Such languages are linguistically simplified, i.e. they typically have a limited vocabulary, a reduced grammatical structure and a narrow range of functions compared to the languages from which they derive. For example, speakers of ordinary languages have approximately 25-30,000 words. Speakers of Neomelanesian use approximately 1,500 items.  A Creole is a second stage in the process of the pidgin development, i.e. it is a 31
pidgin language which has become the mother tongue of a community when within a multiligual community, increasing number of people begin to use a pidgin as their principal means of communication. This causes a major expansion of the grammar and vocabulary, and the range of the situations where the language is used. When the children of the speakers of a pidgin become to use it as their mother tongue, that language becomes known as a creole. In other words, a Creole is the first language of the children of Pidgin speakers. There are considered to be between six and twelve million people still using pidgin languages, and between ten and seventeen million using Creoles. English- based Creoles are used in Jamaica and Sierra Leone. PART 2. PRACTICAL ASSIGNMENTS Exercise Block 1 1. Read the following sentences. Prove that phonetics is connected with grammar through intonation. 1) I’m a journalist. — You are a journalist? — I’m really a professional! 2) As a matter of fact, I find this subject quite interesting. 3) Morning came at last; the rain fell again, and the wind howled. 4) What’s your opinion on this subject? 5) Betty went to school at 7.30. — Betty went to school? Oh, she went to school so early! 6) It is a nice country house, quite perfect and pretty, very small and plain, and well deserving a visit. 7) You see, I promised Ben to meet him. 8) He went by train and I went by bus, so he got there earlier and I saw more of the country. 9) Do you expect to stay here for a long time? 10) Poodle? What poodle? Oh, that little creature! Like it? It’s yours! 2. Read the words and word-combinations. Place the accent marks. State the connection of phonetics and lexicology. ability-to-pay — ability to pay blueprint — blue print bull’s-eye — bull’s early-warning — early warning face-down — face down eye heavy-weight — heavy weight 32
blackmail — black mail cache-drive — cash drive earles-penny — earl’s penny hot-house — hot house mad-doctor — mad doctor to redbook — red book 3. Read the tongue-twisters. What sounds are used to create the effect of alliteration? State the connection of phonetics and stylistics. 1) Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers If Peter picked a peck of pickled peppers Where is the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? 2) Robert Rowley rolled a round roll around, A round roll Robert Rowley rolled around; Where’s the round roll Robert Rowley rolled around? 3) If one doctor doctors another doctor, does the doctor who doctors the doctor doctor the doctor the way the doctor he is doctoring doctors? Or does he doctor the doctor the way the doctor who doctors doctors? 4) Sudden swallows swiftly skimming, Sunset’s slowly spreading shade, Silvery songsters sweetly singing Summer’s soothing serenade. 4. Read the rhymes. What effect is achieved by the phenomena of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration? Prove that phonetics is connected with stylistics. 1) On the grass, in the park, he is playing, he is playing. On the grass, in the park, he is playing la-la-la. On the grass, in the park, she is skipping, she is skipping. On the grass, in the park, she is skipping la-la-la. 2) Hickety, pickety, my black hen, She lays eggs for gentlemen; Sometimes nine, and sometimes ten. Hickety, pickety, my black hen! Cock-a-doodle-do! 3) Shoo, fly, don’t bother me, shoo, fly, don’t bother me, Shoo, fly, don’t bother me, for I belong to somebody. I feel, I feel, I feel, I feel like a morning star, I feel, I feel, I feel, I feel like a morning star. 33
4) Rain, rain, rain, April rain, You are feeding seed and grain, You are raising plants and crops With your gaily sparkling drops. 5. Write the three forms of the verbs and transcribe them. Underline the in- terchanging vowel and consonant sounds. Prove that phonetics is connected with grammar. Become bite build catch choose creep dig drive feel find forgive grind hang hide kneel lean leap lie mean ride run shake shoot sink spill swear throw wind 6. Make sure that you remember all organs of speech. Indicate the correspond- ing parts of the sound producing mechanism in the following pictures: Exercise Block 2 1.What is a vowel? Examine its characteristics and define how vowel sounds differ from their consonant counterparts. Many linguists claim that the description of vowels is much more elusive than that of consonants. Why? 2. Read and transcribe the following groups of words. Compare the contrasted consonant phonemes. rip — rib, tap — tab; live — life, save — safe; bet — bed, sight — side; said — zed, racing — raising; 34
dog — dock, bug — buck; rich — ridge, search — surge; verse — worse, vet — wet; sun — sung, ran — rung. 3. Read and transcribe the following words. State the difference in corresponding paired consonant allophones. pork — rope fork — corn bark — robe drive — vim side — done they — bathe set — ton his — zone chance — cheese just — gist dim — lamp tin — sent sing — sink when — twelve dog — gone all — leave rouge — genre right — trap 4. Vowels as well as consonants have no meaning of their own but they can render communicative meaning. A: Study some vowel interjections with communicative meaning in English and transcribe them. VOWELS WITH COMMUNICATIVE MEANING IN ENGLISH Written Ahhh! Aw. Ow! Oh? Oh. Uh-oh. Ooh! Pronounced [α] [ɔ:] [aw] [ow] [ow:] [?Λ? - ow] [uw:] Used to express Satisfaction, relaxation Sympathy, disappointment Pain Mild surprise, interest Comprehension Trouble Disgust / Excitement In response to/(situation) (You step into a nice hot tub./You take a sip of refreshing iced tea on a hot day.) “My dog just died.” (A door slams on your finger.) “The new Woody Allen movie is opening tonight.” “You have to plug it in before it’ll work.” (You’re driving over the speed limit and you see a police car in your rear-view mirror.) “Look! There’s a fly in your soup!” 35
Recognition of problem Discovery Lack of understanding Frightening someone No Yes (You spill your coffee while pouring.) (You finally understand the math problem you’ve been working on.) (You don’t hear what someone says to you, or you think you heard incorrectly.) (You sneak up behind someone and want to scare him or her.) “Have you ever read this book?” “Can I call you?” Oops! Aha! Huh? Boo! Uh-uh. Uh-huh [uwps] [əha] [hΛ] (nasal) [buw] [?Λ?ə] (nasal) [ənΛ] (nasal) B: Practice using these simple interjections as an efficient means of conveying emotions and feelings. A What would you say if … 1) you sat down to relax in a big comfortable chair after standing all day? 2) you didn’t hear what one of your friends just said to you? 3) you saw your teacher coming toward you and you had skipped his class twice this week? 4) you dropped the coin while paying in the shop? 5) your boyfriend had just dumped you? 6) your friend had swallowed a bug? 36 Respond to this: Example: Ahh!
B What situations cause the following responses? Example: Responses Boo! Oops! or Uh-oh! Aw. Huh? Ooh! 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) You quietly walked up behind a friend to scare her? 5. Read the following pairs of words. Transcribe the sounds corresponding with the letters in bold. State the number of phonological oppositions in every pair. pool — pull bay — may pay — they pay — bay chop — top far — four fast — vast my — may seat — seem fit — feet 6. In three of these words the underlined part is pronounced similarly; in the fourth word the underlined part is pronounced differently. Find the fourth word. Example: lazy lapel while which come roll steak break clean great label who comb rude heir heal total fashion bought surface labourer white grow souvenier hospital jealous proper passion scout palace blood prove hour honest dealt dreamt slogan sugar allow replace motor cassette doubt purchase 37
7. How do you understand the opposition phonetic versus phonological? Are native speakers most likely to be phonetically naive or phonologically naive? Why? Do you agree that the distinction between phonemes and allophones is language specific? Prove your answer. 8. Transcribe the word combinations below the way you would pronounce them in a formal speech and in an everyday situation (rapid colloquial speech). Which of the given items may be called discourse-sensitive, situation-sensitive and situation-indifferent? Provide your own illustrations of Elision-changed forms and analyze the nature of change. Example: the word sounds would rather be pronounced as [saundz] in a Formal situation, whereas in Rapid speech it would sooner be pronounced as [saunz], since the consonants [t] and [d] tend to be dropped between other consonants. Word combinations Sounds aspects parade perhaps family beverage winter because about bread and butter aspects parade perhaps family beverage winter because about bread and butter Formal situation [saundz] Rapid speech [saunz] 9. Read the following pairs of words. Transcribe the opposed sounds. Discuss their relevant features. bet — bed ten — men 38
make — mate tale — sale can — cat tan — pan tame — lame tin — bin tool — fool teal — veal 10. Read the following pairs of words. Transcribe the opposed sounds. What makes them allophones of different phonemes? bun — boon can — corn bat — bet pill — peel bed — bid such — search 11. Read and transcribe the following instances of historical elision. Underline the elided sounds. Add some more examples of your own. write fasten column know soften lamb gnat whistle sword listen castle debt 12. Group the following examples of consonant alternations. Transcribe the alternated phonemes. send — sent lend — lent use — use defence — defend intent — intend speak — speech advice — advise house — house important — importance loose — to lose close — to close a device — to devise Exercise Block 3 1. Complete the text, choosing the relevant option. English word stress is purely / mainly / not only dynamic. The word stress in English is fixed / free. The occurrence of the word stress is / is not limited to a particular syllable in a polysyllabic word. The word stress in English is / is not shifting. It performs / does not perform the semantic function of differentiating lexical units, parts of speech, grammatical forms. In English word stress is / is not used as a means of word-building. Usually (although there are some exceptions), the stress of a verb / noun is on the last 39
6. The political rebels wanted to rebel against the world. 7. The mogul wanted to record a new record for his latest artist. 8. She makes a good delegate. She knows how to delegate authority. 9. Due to the drought, the fields didn’t produce much produce this year. 10.Unfortunately, City Hall wouldn’t permit them to get a permit. 6. Read the following words. Put down stress marks and state the origin of words. Comment on the realization of rhythmical tendency in English accentua- tion. Psychology umbrella décolleté administration characteristic parenthesis satisfactory stiletto impression personal infantile phenomenon terrorist violoncello development archaeology distance volcano 7. Study the following accentuation oppositions of compound words and word combinations. Speak about the distinctive function of word stress. Put down ac- cent marks. Define each member of the opposition. broad-arrow — broad arrow lighthouse — light house narrow-band — narrow band darkroom — dark room beggar-my-neighbour — beggar, my neighbour best-boat — best boat call-birds — call birds blue-jacket — blue jacket Exercise Block 4 1. Identify the prominent element in each statement. Explain your choice. 1. Thank you. 2. I’m sure she will. 3. It’s raining again. 5. It’s getting late. 6. He’s my uncle. 7. He’s an Accountant. 4. She’s in the dining room. 8. She told me about it. 2. What words would you make prominent in part A and part B? What 41
words in part B contrast with words in part A? What words in part B offer new information? 1. A: Do you have it in dark blue? B: No, sorry, only light blue. 2. A: Are you feeling better? B: Oh, yes, much better. 3. A: Should we meet at one? B: Can we make it a quarter after one? 4. A: And the winning number is 5-4-9. B: That’s my number. 5. A: Is he an artist? B: Actually, a very good artist. 6. A: Did you say Tom was in the front yard? B: No, the back yard. 3. Pronounce the disjunctive questions with a corresponding intonation contour. Mind the stress of notional and functional parts of speech. Intone the sentences. 1) The hat is on the shelf, isn’t it? 2) The cup isn’t on the table, is it? 3) These are cedars, aren’t these? 4) Those aren’t pines, are those? 5) You like this place, don’t you? 6) Jill won’t go to that party, will she? 7) The teacher praized my work, didn’t he? 8) Alice hasn’t got a dictionary, has she? 4. Pronounce the statements with LOW RISING / HIGH RISING intonation. What does a low rise in this situation suggest? What may a high or sharp rise suggest? 1. A: 2. A: 3. A: 4. A: 5. A: I’m going to California next week. We’re moving to New York next month. I bought that rug in Mexico. I tried to call you last night. Richard left a present for you. 42 B: Where? B: When are you moving? B: Where? B: When? B: What?
6. A: My mother works in an office. 7. A: I have an appointment on Tuesday. B: What does she do? B: When is your appointment? 8. A: Someone I work with gave me this cassette. B: Who? 5. Read and intone the following sentences. Make distinctions in the intonation of imperative and exclamatory sentences. Pay attention to the position of the nucleus. 1) Don’t take the map. Take the textbook. 2) How cruel of them to leave the baby alone! 3) Don’t give a pen to Jane. Give it to me. 4) You are absolutely right! They shouldn’t have done that. 5) Be quick. Have some coffee and toast. We must be off in a minute. 6) What a nice country house! 7) Meet my family. This is Mum and Dad. 6. Read the dialogue, paying special attention to the intonation patterns and how these help to communicate the meaning. NO PANCAKES FOR YOU! A: Get me some pancakes. B: We DON’T SERVE PANcakes. A: Three eggs and a short stack of pancakes. B: We DON’T SERVE pancakes. A: What do you mean? Everybody serves pancakes. B: WE don’t serve PANcakes. A: B: For the last time. bring me some pancakes and eggs. We DON’T SERVE PANcakes 7. Practice predicting and assigning prominence. Add additional emphasis via volume, length, and/or pitch. Waitress: Are you ready to order? Customer 1: Yes, I think so. Waitress: What will you have? Customer 1:I think I’ll have enchiladas. Chicken enchiladas. Waitress: Chicken enchiladas. And for you, sir? Customer2: I’d like curry. Vegetable curry. Waitress: Vegetable curry. OK. And how about dessert? 43
Customer 1: Mm. Let me see. Maybe some pie. Apple pie. Waitress: Apple pie. And for you? Customer 2: I’d like cherry pie. Waitress: OK. One apple pie and one cherry pie. Thank you. General Revision Test 1 Difficulty level: Pre Intermediate 1.The variant of a phoneme affected by the neighbouring sounds is called a subsidiary allophone a speech sound a syllable a principal allophone 2. Dialects, which differ from each other only in pronunciation, are called: phonostyles functional dialects accents idiolects 3. According to the materialistic view on the phoneme it is regarded as a three- aspect unity including objective auditory functional material real generalized acoustic abstractional articulatory 4.Match the words and the phonetic phenomena witness spark dawn needle his thing labialization loss of aspiration nasal plosion false assimilation lateral plosion 44
5. The role of various language units in distinguishing one sequence of sounds (a word or a sequence of words) from another of different meaning is the perceptive function the semantic function the articulatory function the sense-distinctive function 6. The most important part of the intonation group is nucleus tail body pre-head head 7. The stops [t-d], [k-g], [p-b] are all plosive consonants fricative consonants affricates medial sonorants 8. The branch of Phonetics studying the phonetic system in diachrony is called historical phonetics comparative phonetics general phonetics descriptive phonetics 9. In the words [di:n], [drai], [dwel], [bredӨ], [ridl], etc. we deal with different realizations of the phoneme /d/; they are considered to be in complementary distribution free variation contrastive distribution 10. The method of phonetic investigation consisting in the discovery of minimal pairs by means of commutation test is called distributional experimental semantic 11. Short stressed vowels pronounced without any decrease in the force of 45
articulation and immediately followed by consonants (e.g. [i] in the word “city”) are called checked unchecked 12. The mistake that occurs when the sound [f] is substituted for the sound [Ө] like in pairs ‘fin-thin’, ‘fought-thought’, etc. is called the phonological mistake the phonetic mistake 13. The phonemes [w], [j], [r] possess common property. They are all sonorants cacuminal consonants lingual consonants back consonants 14. Mistakes connected with the changes of the meaning of words, which pre- vent communication are called spelling mistakes phonetic mistakes phonological mistakes orthoepic mistakes 15. Allophones of the same phoneme in different phonetic environments are considered to be in contrastive distribution complementary distribution free variation 16. The statement “In Russian as well as in English there are checked and free vowels” is true false 17. The opposition of English voiced and voiceless consonant phonemes is non-phonemic phonemic 18. Expressing a personal attitude of the speaker towards the information conveyed intonation performs: the semantic function 46
the modal function the stylistic function the grammatical function 19. The sentence ‘Couldn’t you ‘comeˎsooner? (pronounced with the falling tone) is a command an order a request a reproach 20. Duration is a sense-distinctive characteristics of vowels in English in Russian 21. The variant of a phoneme, which is considered free from the influence of the neighbouring sounds, is called a speech sound a subsidiary allophone a syllable a principal allophone 22. L.V. Shcherba suggested the following types of style in pronunciation: academic style publicistic style colloquial style natural style formal style declamatory style full style acquired style 23. The words “dictionary”, “ordinary”, “February”, “matrimony”, etc. have two stresses (primary and secondary) in: the Received Pronunciation the Cockney dialect the General American 24. Words or morphemes which are differentiated by only one phoneme in the 47
same position are called syllables subsidiary allophones minimal pairs allophones 25. Articulation of sonorants results in the production of voice noise both noise and voice 26. Individual speech of members of the same language community is known as: phonostyle functional dialect accent idiolect 27. In the words [ki:p], [krai], [tikl], [ku:l], etc. the sound [k] represents different realizations of the phoneme /k/; all of them are subsidiary allophones principal allophones 28. The functional aspect of the system of phonemes and prosodemes is studied in phonology orthoephy morphology morphophonetics General Revision Test 2 Difficulty level: Advanced 1.The phonetic system of a language contains 1.elementary sounds. 2. grammatical forms. 3. segmental units. 4. 2. lexical units. Segmental units constitute 48
1. syllables and rhythmic units. 2.different positions and movements of speech organs. 3.the vocalic and the consonantal subsystems. 4. intensity and duration of speech sounds. 3. Segmental units serve to form 1. morphemes, words, word-forms, utterances. 2.pitch, stress, rhythm. 3. quality, loudness, the length of speech sounds. 4.vibrations of the vocal cords, the amplitude of vibrations, the acoustic effect of vibrations. 4. Suprasegmental (prosodic) units comprise 1. vowels, consonants, syllables, morphemes, words. 2. the subsystems of pitch, stress, rhythm, tempo, pauses. 3. segmental sounds, prosodic phenomena, intonation patterns, pitch changes, utterances. 4. the vocalic subsystem, the consonantal subsystem, intonation groups, pitch levels and ranges. 5. An intonation pattern (on the perceptive level) is the basic unit of intonation consisting of three prosodic components: 1. pitch movement, loudness, duration. 2. pitch variations, speech melody, the fundamental frequency of vibrations of the vocal cords. 3. pitch with the nucleus (a pitch-and-stress complex), loudness, tempo. 4.stressed syllables, unstressed syllables, rhythm. 6. 1. Phonetics as a linguistic science is concerned with the study of the phonetic system of a concrete language. 2. a sound-production phenomenon. 3. a sound-perception process. 4. the functional aspect of segmental sounds and prosodic phenomena. 7. A linguistic branch of phonetics dealing with functional distinctions of sound phenomena is 1. theoretical phonetics. 2. applied phonetics. 49
3. phonology. 4. general phonetics. 8. The definition of the phoneme embraces three aspects: 1.the acoustic aspect, the auditory aspect, the articulatory aspect. 2.the material aspect, the abstract aspect, the functional aspect. 3.the linguistic aspect, the physiological aspect, the psychologicalaspect. 4. the functional aspect, the phonetic aspect, the physical aspect. 9. The phonetic contexts in which subsidiary allophones of a phoneme (as opposed to principal ones) occur are represented by 1. light, like, take it, tape it. 2. breed, breeze, port, court. 3. let them, not quite, nightmare, twice. 4.door, daughter, darn, dark. 10. The conditions for a variety of English pronunciation to be accepted as the orthoepic norm are 1. acknowledgement of a single variety of pronunciation (RP);recognition of the fact that RP has the “prestige accent”; the presence of factors that encourage standardization of pronunciation. 2. registering/recording the well-established variants of pronunciation by the pronouncing dictionaries; 3. the use of the standard pronunciation adopted by the educated people; deviations from the norm viewed as unacceptable in any circumstances. 4. wide currency, conformity to the main phonetic tendencies, social acceptability. intolerance of dialectal pronunciation and variants of non-standard pronunciation; a non-regional character of pronunciation. 11. A phone as an individual sound realization (as opposed to a phoneme and its allophone and variant) involves 1 distinctive features. 2 distinctive and contextual features. 3 distinctive, contextual and stylistic features. 4 distinctive, contextual, stylistic and personal features. 12. Regional varieties of British English (with the status of a dialect and a national pronunciation variant) are 50
1 Cockney, Scouse (the Liverpool dialect). 2 the Northern type of English pronunciation, Southern English accents. 3 Scottish standard English, non-standard territorial varieties (spoken in Scotland). 4 American English, Canadian English. 13. Many educated people in Britain (though their pronunciation is not based on RP) speak 1 American English. 2 Welsh English. 3 Northern Ireland English. 4 Standard English with a regional type of pronunciation. 14. American English embraces a wide range of pronunciation varieties. The standard pronunciation of American English is referred to as 1 AE pronunciation. 2 the GA pronunciation. 3 the Southern regional type of pronunciation. 4 the Eastern regional type of pronunciation. 15. In AE pronunciation certain consonants are dropped in definite phonetic contexts, and the sample of such a consonant is in 1 Give me that one. 2 History repeats itself. 3 It’s an historical novel. 4 Something has gone wrong with the computer. 16. The definition of intonation which embraces relevant prosodic characteristics is 1 a complex unity of speech melody, sentence stress, rhythm, tempo and voice timbre. 2 a complex combination of the fundamental frequency of vibrations of the vocal cords (correlating with pitch) and the amplitude of vibrations related to loudness, intensit duration and stress. 3 variations in the pitch of the voice, utterance stress, rhythm,tempo and pauses. 4 modifications of pitch and loudness, intensity and tempo, rhythmicality. 17. Obligatory structural components of an intonation group are expressed in the following dialogue by 51
1 I’d like to invite Nancy and Tim. 2 Fine. 3 Will you get things ready in the house? 4 Certainly. 18. The communicative function of intonation is concerned with the realization of the structuring functions of intonation in combination with 1 delimitating and integrating functions. 2 the functions serving the purpose of structuring the information content of a textual unit and determining its syntactic parameter. 3 the distinctive (phonological) function of intonation conveying the meanings of textual units, their attitudinal connotations and phonostylistic characteristics in speech. 4 functions connected with semantic and stylistic modifications of textual units in various contexts. 19. The division of an utterance into rhythmic units is based in English mostly on 1 isochronous intervals between stressed syllables. 2 the boundaries between rhythmic units determined by the semantic and grammatical relations between the words in an utterance. 3 objective isochrony of English rhythmic units. 4 prosodic characteristics of proclitics and enclitics belonging to the nuclei of rhythmic units. 20. Three common types of heads (scales) are 1 the Scandent head, the Sliding head, the Broken Descending head. 2 the Low Level head, the High Level head, the Falling head. 3 a descending head, an ascending head, a level head. 4 the Stepping head, the Sliding head, the Rising head, 21. Phonostylistics, an essential branch of phonetics, is concerned with the study of 1 lexical and grammatical differences in definite varieties of language in use. 2 extralinguistic factors and circumstances of reality involved in the process of oral and written communication. 3 style-forming means characterized by definite phonetic features. 4 functional styles of the written language. 52
22. The phonetic style-forming means ( style-differentiating characteristics) 1 the degree of assimilation and reduction, elision. are differentiation of speech are l public private, impersonal personal dimensions. 2 individual and social characteristics of speakers, their age and sex differences. 3 a formal context, an informal context. 4 purpose, participants, setting. 24. The degree of informality presented in a familiar spontaneous conversation is identified with 1 even melodic, temporal and rhythmic organization of speech. 2 simplification of sound sequences, uneven rhythm, abundance of pauses, varying loudness and tempo. 3 a fully prepared type of text presentation which sounds loud and distinct. 4 the occurrence of pauses at the syntactic junctures. 25. Two common informational style registers (spheres of discourse) are 1 educational information and press reporting/broadcasting. 2 a monologue and a dialogue. 2 phonetic modifications of segmental and prosodic features of speech. 3 the degree of carefulness of articulation, the degree of preparedness of speech. 4 the extent of formality of speech, the social acceptability of a phonetic style. 23. The components of extralinguistic situations relevant to phonostylistic 3 reading and speaking activities. 4 prepared and spontaneous presentations of speech/talk. 26. The characteristic prosodic features of informal conversational English at the levels of terminal tones and pre-nuclear patterns are 1 a frequent use of descending and ascending heads, a great amount of compound tones. 2 a high frequency of simple falling and rising tones, the use of emphatic tones; a tendency to use level heads. 3 significant variations in loudness, uneven speech tempo. 4 a tendency to use short intonation groups, sudden jumps down on communicative centers. 27. The rhythmic organization of verse recitations at the prosodic level (as 53
opposed to that of prose reading) is characterized by 1simple intonation contours, often with the stepping head and the falling nuclear tone. 2 comparatively slow tempo. 3 decentralized stress organization. 4 the isochronic recurrence of stressed syllables (rhythmic units). 54
GLOSSARY A Accent – 1) a variety of a language which is distinguished from others exclusively in terms of pronunciation, type of pronunciation, that is the way sounds, stress, rhythm and intonation are used in the given language community Accommodation – modifications of consonants under the influence of the neighbouring vowels and vice versa; the process of mutual influence of consonants and vowels, e.g. in /tu:/ /t/ is labialized under the influence of /u:/ and /u:/ is a little bit advanced under the influence of /t/. Acoustics – the study of the physical properties of sound. Acoustic Phonetics – science which studies the way in which the air vibrates between the speaker’s mouth and the listener’s ear, in other words, the sound wave. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds and uses special technologies to measure speech signals. Affricates – noise consonants produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air stream escapes from the mouth with some friction; an affricate starts as a plosive, but instead of ending with plosion, ends with a fricative made in the same place. English /ʧ, ʤ/ are affricates. Allophones – variants of a phoneme, usually occur in different positions in the word, cannot contrast with each other and are not used to differentiate the meaning. Allophones of a certain phoneme are speech sounds which are realizations of one and the same phoneme and which therefore, cannot distinguish words. Allophonic variation of phonemes – variation which is conditioned by phonetic position and phonetic environment. Alveolar – a place of articulation where the tongue touches the ridge just behind the upper front teeth. An articulation involving the tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge, as in English /d/ in die. /t, d, s, z/ are alveolar. Alveolar-palatal – post-alveolar consonant made with considerable raising of the front of the tongue, making it equivalent to a palatalized palato-alveolar. Ambisyllabic – belonging to two syllables. A consonant such as [p] in happy is sometimes said to be ambisyllabic. Amplitude – the distance to which the air particles are displaced from their position of rest by the application of some external force; the amount of energy present in a 55
sound wave at a particular moment in time. Apical – an articulation involving the tip of the tongue; sounds articulated with the tips of the tongue. English /t, d, s, z, ɵ, ð, ʃ, ʒ, ʤ, ʧ, n, l/. Applied Phonetics – a branch of phonetics used for practical purposes. Articulation – the approach or contact of two speech organs, such as the tip of the tongue and the upper teeth. Articulator – part of the vocal tract with which we produce speech sounds; used as a reference point for classifying consonants. Articulatory Phonetics – also Physiological Phonetics, a branch of phonetics that studies the way in which the air is set in motion, the movements of the speech organs and the coordination of these movements in the production of single sounds and trains of sounds. Aspiration – a period of voicelessness after the release of articulation, as in English pie [pʰaɪ]; a slight puff of breath which is heard after the explosion of /p, t, k/ in initial position. Assimilation – the modification of a consonant by a neighbouring consonant in the speech chain. It is the result of coarticulation, when one sound is made similar to its neighbour; in English it mainly affects the place of articulation. e.g. ̩tenˈ men → ̩temˈ men. It can be progressive, regressive or reciprocal. Attitudinal function – this function is performed by intonation, when the speaker expresses his attitude to what he is saying, by intonation alone, e.g. low fall – lack of interest: ˎHave you? high fall – surprise: ˋIs she? B Back vowels – vowels in the production of which the body of the tongue is in the back part of the oral cavity (mouth), the back of the tongue is raised. The vowels [u. ʊ, ɒ, ɔ. ɑ:] form a set of back reference vowels. Back-advanced vowels – vowels formed with the tongue in the back-advanced position in the mouth: /ʊ, ɑ. ʌ/ and the nuclei of the diphthongs /aʊ, ʊə/. BBC English – BBC accent (BBC English) – the accent used by most English- born announcers and news-readers on serious BBC radio and television channels; proposed as a standard accent for the description of the English spoken in England Bilabial – term for the place of articulation of consonants produced with the upper and lower lips. An articulation involving both lips, as in English /m/ in my. Bilabial 56
consonants are: /p, w, b, m/. Bilingualism – the command of two different languages by a person. Breathy voice – another name for murmur, a type of phonation in which the vocal folds are only slightly apart so that they vibrate while allowing a high rate of airflow through the glottis. C Cardinal vowels – a set of vowels devised by phoneticians (first defined by Daniel Jones) as a standard or reference set of vowels that do not belong to any one language. The vowels of any language can be described by stating their relations to the cardinal vowels. Central vowels – sounds articulated when the front part of the tongue is raised towards the back part of the hard palate. Close vowels – sounds articulated when the tongue is raised high towards the hard palate. Closed syllable – a syllable which ends in a consonant, as the first syllables in English country, magpie, banter. Coda – one or more phonemes that follow the syllabic phoneme; the consonants occurring after the vowel in a syllable. Combined tune – an utterance which is composed of more than one intonation- group. Comparative phonetics – a branch of phonetics which is concerned with the comparative study of the phonetic systems of two or more languages, especially kindred ones. Complete assimilation – assimilation when one of the two adjacent sounds fully coincides with the other. For example: less sugar /leʃ ˈʃugə/. Consonant – a sound made with air stream that meets an obstruction in the mouth or nasal cavities. It is usually found at the beginning or end of a syllable rather than in the middle of it. Constitutive function of speech sounds – the function to constitute the material forms of morphemes, words and sentences. Constrictive – consonants in the production of which an incomplete obstruction is formed. /f, ɵ, s, ʃ, h/, /v, ð, z, ʒ/; /w, l, r, j/ (constrictive sonants). Coronal – sounds articulated with the tip or blade of the tongue raised toward the 57
teeth or the alveolar ridge (or, sometimes, the hard palate), such as [ʧ, ʤ, s, t]. D Dark sound – the sound which is made harder due to additional articulatory work – the raising of the back part of the tongue to the soft palate (back secondary focus), [w] and [ł] “dark” are pronounced with the back secondary focus. Dental – the place of articulation of consonants where the tongue makes contact with the upper or lower front teeth; sounds produced with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth. Descending head (scale) – a type of head (scale) in which syllables form a descending sequence; gradual lowering of the voice pitch. Descriptive Phonetics – a branch of phonetics that studies the phonetic structure of one language only in its static form, synchronically. Devoicing – a process that results in a voiced consonant being pronounced as voiceless. Diaphonic variation of phonemes – variation which affects the quality and quantity of particular phonemes. It is caused by concrete historical tendencies active in certain localities. Dynamic stress – force accent based mainly on the expiratory effort. Diphthong – a vowel which consists of two elements, strong (a nucleus) and weak – (a glide); a vowel in which there is a change in quality during a single syllable, as in English /aɪ/ in high. English diphthongs can be normal – this term is used because they are similar to the diphthongs normally occurring in other languages: /eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ, aʊ, əʊ/ and centring: /ɪə, ɛə, ɔə, ʊə/ – they are called so because their glide /ə/ is considered to be a central vowel. Diphthongoid – a vowel articulated when the change in the tongue position is fairly weak, in this case the articulated vowel is not pure, but it still consists of one element. In English /i:/ and /u:/ are diphthongoids. Discourse – language seen from the point of view of information structure, the interaction between language users, and the background knowledge which speakers and hearers share. Distinctive (relevant) features – the articulatory features which form the invariant of the phoneme. Distinctive function of speech sounds – it is manifested most conspicuously in 58
minimal pairs when the opposition of speech sounds is the only phonetic means of distinguishing one member of that pair from the other. Dorsum – the back of the tongue. Downdrift – the gradual lowering of pitch level (usually in a tone language) from the beginning to the end of a stretch of speech. The tendency for the pitch to fall throughout an intonation phrase. Duration – the quantity of time during which the same vibratory motion, the same patterns of vibration are maintained. E Elision – the apparent disappearance of a speech sound where it would be expected to occur; this is usually the result of a fast speech rate. For example: ’tis instead of it is, th’ eternal instead of the eternal. Emphasis – combination of the expressive means of the language to single out emphatic words, groups of words or whole sentences. Experimental Phonetics – a branch of phonetics which deals with research work carried out with the help of different technical devices for measurements and for instrumental analysis. Expiratory, or chest pulse theory – it defines the syllable as a sound or a group of sounds that are pronounced in one chest pulse, accompanied by increases in air pressure. According to this definition, there are as many syllables in a word as there are chest pulses (expirations) made during the utterance of the word. Explosion – noise made by the air, when it is suddenly released through a complete obstruction. The sounds /p, t, k/ are pronounced with a plosion, or explosion. Extra-linguistic factors – non-linguistic factors, the circumstances of reality that cause phonetic modifications in speech. They are: 1) the aim of speech; 2) the extent of spontaneity of speech; 3) the nature of interchange, i.e. the use of a form of speech which may either suggest only listening, or both listening and an exchange of remarks; 4) socially and psychological factors, which determine the extent of formality of speech and the attitudes expressed. F Forelingual – sounds articulated with the front part of the tongue. For example: /t, d, n/ are forelingual consonants. Formally distributional method (distributional method) of phonological analy- 59
morphemes, words, all of which are meaningful. 2) The phoneme performs the distinc- tive function because phonemes distinguish one word from another. 3) On account of the fact that native speakers identify definite combinations of phonemes as meaningful linguistic units (words, word combinations, or phrases), linguists distinguish a third function of the phoneme – the identificatory (or recognitive) function of the phoneme. Functions of the syllable – as a phonological unit the syllable performs several functions, that may be combined into the main three: constitutive, distinctive and iden- tificatory: 1) The constitutive function of the syllable manifests itself in the fact that the syllable forms higher-level units – words, accentual or rhythmic groups, utterances. 2) The distinctive function of the syllable is to differentiate words and word combina- tions. 3) The identificatory function of the syllable is conditioned by the hearer’s per- ception of syllables as entire phonetic units with their concrete allophones and syllable boundaries. Functions of word stress – 1) Words stress has a constitutive function, as it molds syllables into a word by forming its stress pattern. Without a definite stress pattern a word ceases to be a word and becomes a sequence of syllables. 2) Word stress has a distinctive function in English, because there exist different words in English with analogous sound structure which are differentiated in speech only by their stress pat- terns (e.g. insult, abstract, accent). 3) Word stress has an identificatory function be- cause the stress patterns of words enable people to identify definite combinations of sounds as meaningful linguistic units. A distortion of the stress patterns may hamper understanding or produce a strange accent. Fundamental frequency – the lowest frequency that can be found in a periodic waveform. In speech, this is almost always the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds. G General Phonetics – a branch of phonetics that studies all the sound-producing possibilities of the human speech apparatus and the ways they are used for purposes of human communication by means of language. General phonetics studies the complex nature of phonetic phenomena and formulates phonetic laws and principles. Glide – the second weak element of English diphthongs. For example: /ɪ/ and /ə/ in /aɪ, eɪ, ɪə, ɛə/ are glides. 61
Glottal – the place of articulation of consonants produced with the vocal folds in the larynx; an articulation involving the glottis, as [ʔ] button [bʌʔn]; sounds articulated in the glottis. Glottal stop – a sound heard when the glottis opens suddenly and produces an explosion resembling a short cough. Glottis – the opening between the vocal cords, through which the air passes. H Hard palate – the bony structure that forms the roof of the front part of the mouth. Head (Scale) – part of the intonation-group, contains stressed syllables preceding the nucleus with the intervening unstressed syllables. The functions of the head are to express relations between its constituent units – rhythmic groups and to convey modal- stylistic meanings. Height of the tongue – the height to which the bulk of the tongue is raised and which determines the level of the raised bulk of the tongue: high, mid, or low. Hesitation pause – silent or filled pause mainly used in spontaneous speech to gain time to think over what to say next. Historical Phonetics – a branch of phonetics that studies the phonetic structure of a language in its historical develop ment, diachronically. I Idiolect – individual speech of members of the same language community. Instrumental methods – methods of phonetic investigation based upon registering or computing machines and technical devices. Intensity – a property of a sound produced by the amplitude of vibrations. Intensity is the amount of acoustic energy in a sound; often used informally as synonymous with amplitude, to which it is closely related. International Phonetic Alphabet – a set of symbols adopted by the International Phonetic Association as a universal system for the transcription of speech sounds. Intonation – 1) pitch (or melody) variations used to convey meaning. It is normally distinguished from tone by the fact that tone is usually a property of individual words, while intonation patterns are more frequently properties of longer stretches of speech, such as a clause or a sentence. 2) a complex unity of speech melody, sentence stress, tempo, rhythm and voice timbre, which enables the speaker to express his 62
thoughts, emotions and attitudes towards the contents of the utterance and the hearer. Acoustically, intonation is a complex combination of varying fundamental frequency, intensity and duration. Intonation group – an actualized syntagm; the part of an utterance over which a particular intonation pattern extends. Structurally the intonation group has some obligatory formal characteristics. These are the nuclear stress, on the semantically most important word and the terminal tone (i.e. pitch variations on the nucleus and the tail if any). The boundaries between intonation groups are marked by tonal junctures and pauses. All these features shape the intonation group, delimit one intonation group from another and show its relative semantic importance. The intonation group is a meaningful unit. The most general meanings expressed by the intonation group are, for instance, those of completeness, finality versus incompleteness, non-finality. Intonation pattern – pitch movements together with loudness and the tempo of speech extending over an intonation group. Intonograph – a technical device which gives pictures of sound waves of syllables, words and utterances. Invariant of the phoneme – allophones of each phoneme possess a bundle of distinctive features, that make this phoneme functionally different from all other phonemes of the language concerned. This functionally relevant bundle of articulatory features is called the invariant of the phoneme. K Kinetic tone – a tone of varying pitch which is produced by varying the tension of the vocal cords. Kinetic tones are generally classified according to the following criteria: 1) direction of the pitch change; 2) width of the pitch change, or its interval; 3) relative position of the pitch change within the speaker’s voice range. Besides giving prominence to a word, kinetic tones perform a number of other functions pertaining to the overall communicative meaning of an utterance. They 1) indicate the communicative type of an utterance; 2) express the speaker’s attitude towards the subject-matter, the listener and the situation; 3) single out the centre of new information in an utterance or the point of greater semantic importance as viewed by the speaker. 63
L Labial – an articulation involving one or both lips, such as [f, v, m]; sounds articulated by the lips. Labialization – a secondary articulation in which lip rounding is added to a sound, as in English /ʃ/. Labiodental – an articulation involving the lower lip and the upper front teeth, such as in English /f, v/; sounds articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth. Laminal – an articulation made with the blade of the tongue. Laryngeal – the region of the vocal tract at the glottis. Laryngoscope – a special device which helps to observe the vocal cords, epiglottis and the glottis. Larynx – part of the vocal tract containing the vocal cords. Lateral – an articulation in which the airstream flows over the sides of the tongue, as in the English approximant [l] in leaf; sounds produced when the sides of the tongue are active. Lateral plosion – sudden release of air which escapes along the sides of the tongue; the release of a plosive by lowering the sides of the tongue, as at the end of the word saddle. Lax – historically short vowels in the articulation of which muscular tension of speech organs is weak. In English, the lax vowels are those that occur in monosyllables closed by [ŋ] such as sing, length, hang, long, hung. Lenis consonants – voiced consonants pronounced with weak muscular tension: /b, d, z, g, v, ð, ʒ, ʤ/ Locus – the apparent point of origin of the formants for each place of articulation. Long vowels – in English they are /i. ɑ. ɔ. ɜ. u:/ Loudness – the intensity of sound is produced by the amplitude of vibrations; the auditory property of a sound that enables a listener to place it on a scale going from soft to loud without considering the acoustic properties, such as the intensity of the sound. M Manner of articulation – one of the principles of consonant classifications which is connected with the type of obstruction to the air stream. Maximum onsets principle – this principle states that where two syllables are to 64
be divided, any consonants between them should be attached to the right-hand syllable, not the left, as far as possible within the restrictions governing syllable onsets and codas. Melody – changes in the voice pitch in the process of speech. Medio-lingual – sounds produced with the front part of the tongue raised high to the hard palate. English /j/ is medio-lingual. Model of a phonetic style – the set of stylistically marked modifications of all the prosodic features represents the model of a particular phonetic style. Modifications of sounds – positional and combinatory changes of sounds in connected speech. Monophthong – a vowel articulated when the tongue position is stable, in this case the articulated vowel is pure, it consists of one element; a vowel in which there is no change in quality during a syllable, as in English [ɑ:] in father. Motor theory of speech perception – the notion that listeners perceive some aspects of an utterance by reference to their own activities, considering what they would have to do in order to make similar sounds. Mouth cavity – the cavity between the teeth and the pharynx. Mutual assimilation – bilateral assimilation, when two assimilating sounds equally influence each other. For example, bilateral assimilation of /s/ + /j/ results in /ʃ/: issue /ˈɪsju: - ˈɪʃʃu: - ˈɪʃu:/. N Narrow transcription – also Phonetic transcription, provides special symbols for all the allophones of the same phoneme. It shows phonetic details (such as, in English, aspiration, length, etc.) by using a wide variety of symbols and, in many cases, diacritics. Narrow variations – a subclass of the vertical positions of the tongue which in this case is raised slightly higher in the mouth cavity. Nasal consonants – sounds articulated when the soft palate is lowered and the air stream goes out through the nose. Nasal cavity – the cavity inside the nose which is separated from the mouth cavity with the soft palate and the uvula. Nasalization – modification of a speech sound (usually a vowel) resulting in some of the flow of air being allowed to escape through the nose, as in the vowel [æ] between nasals in English man. 65
Nasal plosion – sudden release of air by lowering the soft palate so that the air escapes through the nose, as at the end of the word hidden. It takes place in the combinations like /tn, dn/. Nasal vowel – a vowel in which part of the airstream passes out through the nose. National variant – the language of a nation, the standard of its form, the language of its nation’s literature. Neutralization – the loss of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vowels in unstressed positions. Noise consonants – consonants in the production of which noise prevails over voice. (compare with sonorants). Non-distinctive (irrelevant, redundant) features – the articulatory features which do not serve to distinguish meaning; for instance, it is impossible in English to oppose an aspirated [p] to a non-aspirated one in the same phonetic context to distinguish meanings. That is why aspiration is a non-distinctive feature of English consonants. Nuclear tone – a significant change of pitch direction on the last strongly accented syllable in an intonation pattern. Nucleus – 1) the last strongly accented syllable in an intonation pattern; 2) the most prominent part of a diphthong; 3) the centre of a syllable, usually a vowel. O Occlusive – sounds produced when a complete obstruction to the air stream is formed. Occlusive consonants are 1) /p, b, t, d, k, g/ – stop or plosives and 2) sonorants /m, n, ŋ/ – nasals. Occlusive-constrictive – consonants in the production of which the obstruction is complete at the beginning of production, then it becomes incomplete. Open syllable – a syllable which ends in a vowel; a syllable without a consonant at the end – CV-type, as the first syllables in English layman, seagull. Open vowels – vowels produced when the tongue is in the low part of the mouth cavity, e.g. [ɑ:]; cf. close vowels. Open or low vowels in English are: /ӕ, ʌ, ɒ, a (ɪ, ʊ), ɑ:/. Oral consonants – sounds articulated when the soft palate is raised and the air stream goes out through the mouth. Oratorical style – the type of speech with which orators address large audiences. It is characterized by slow rate, eloquent and moving traits. 66
Organs of speech – the human organs which together with biological functions take part in sound production. Orthoepic norm of a language – the standard pronunciation adopted by native speakers as the right and proper way of speaking. It comprises the variants of pronunciation of vocabulary units and prosodic patterns which reflect the main tendencies in pronunciation that exist in the language. It is used by the most educated part of the population. P Palatal – an articulation involving the front of the tongue and the hard palate, as in English [j] in you; sounds produced with the front part of the tongue raised high to the hard palate. Palatalisation – softening of consonants due to the raised position of the middle part of the tongue towards the hard palate; a secondary articulation in which the front of the tongue is raised toward the hard palate, as in the so-called “soft sounds” in Russian. Paralinguistic feature – a type of feature that forms part of prosody; generally considered to be outside the set of phonological contrasts of a language. Pause – a short period of time when sound stops before starting again. Pauses are non-obligatory between sense-groups (intonation-groups) and obligatory between sen- tences. It is the main function of a pause to segment connected speech into utterances and intonation groups to delimit one utterance or intonation group from another. Pauses of perception – they are not a stop in phonation as there is no period of silence. The effect of a pause is produced by a sharp change of pitch direction, or by variation in duration, or both. Periodic – in acoustics, a pattern of vibration which repeats itself at regular inter- vals; typical of vowels. Periodicity – the quality or fact of recurring at constant intervals. Pharyngeal – the place of articulation of a consonant formed by constricting the pharynx. An articulation involving the root of the tongue and the back wall of the pharynx. Pharyngealization – a secondary articulation in which the root of the tongue is drawn back so that the pharynx is narrowed. Pharynx – the part of the throat which connects the larynx to the upper part of the vocal tract. 67
Phonation – voicing, the vibration of the vocal cords. Phone – a sound realized in speech and which bears some individual, stylistic and social characteristics of the speaker. Phoneme – a minimal abstract linguistic unit realized in speech in the form of speech sounds opposable to other phonemes of the same language to distinguish the meaning of morphemes and words. According to this definition the phoneme is a unity of three aspects: material, abstract and functional. Phonetic mistakes – if an allophone of the phoneme is replaced by another allo- phone of the phoneme the mistake is called phonetic. It happens when the invariant of the phoneme is not modified and consequently the meaning of the word is not affected Phonetic oppositions – comparison of sounds, words and morphemes in order to single out their minimal distinctive features. Phonetic styles (styles of pronunciation) – different ways of pronunciation, caused by extralinguistic factors and characterized by definite phonetic features. Phonetics – a branch of linguistics which is concerned with human noises by which the thought is actualized. Phonetics analyses the nature of these noises, their combinations and their functions in relation to the meaning. Phonological analysis – analysis whose aim is to determine which differences of sounds are phonemic / non-phonemic and to find the inventory of the phonemes of this or that language. Phonological mistakes – mistakes connected with the alteration of the meaning of words, which prevent communication. If an allophone of some phoneme is replaced by an allophone of a different phoneme the mistake is called phonological, because the meaning is inevitably affected. It happens when one ore more relevant features of the phoneme are not realized. For example, mispronunciation of /ɵ/ may lead to the confu- sion of thought – fought, think – sink, mouth – mouse, etc. Phonological opposition – a pair of words in which any one phoneme is usually opposed to any other phoneme in at least one lexical or grammatical minimal or sub- minimal pair, e. g. /t – d/, /k – g/ in ten – den, coat – goat. Phonology (Functional Phonetics, Linguistic Phonetics) – the branch of phonet- ics that studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic struc- ture, word accent and prosodic features, such as pitch, loudness and tempo; the branch of phonetics that is concerned with the social functions of different phonetic phenom- 68
ena; the description of the system and patterns of sounds that occur in a language. Phonosemantics – a branch of psycholinguistics that studies the relations between the sound structure of a word and its meaning. Phonostylistics – a branch of phonetics that studies the way phonetic means of the language function in various oral realizations of the language. It is concerned with the identification of the style-forming means, i.e. the phonetic features that enable the na- tive speaker to distinguish intuitively between different styles of pronunciation. Phonotactics – the study of the possible phoneme combinations of a language. “Physical” view of the phoneme – it regards the phoneme as a “family” of related sounds satisfying certain conditions: 1) The various members of the “family” must show phonetic similarity to one another, in other words be related in character. 2) No member of the “family” may occur in the same phonetic context as any other. Pitch – the auditory characteristic of a sound, it corresponds to the fundamental frequency (the rate of vibrations of the vocal cords). The pitch component of intona- tion, or speech melody, is commonly referred to as variations in the height of the voice during speech, and is generally described in terms of pitch-changes and levels. Pitch level – a particular height of pitch. Pitch range – the interval between two pitch levels or two differently pitched syllables or parts of a syllable. According to circumstances the speaker changes his/ her voice range. It may be widened or narrowed to express emphasis or the speaker’s attitudes and emotions. Place of articulation – part of the standard way of classifying consonants, this refers to the place in the vocal tract where the air stream is obstructed. According to this principle the English consonants are classed into: 1) labial; 2) lingual; 3) glottal. Plosion – short burst of noise produced by the escape of compressed air when the closure of a plosive consonant is released Plosives – consonants produced when the air stream is completely stopped for a short time, also stops. Plosive consonants are /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, ŋ/. Post-alveolar – the place of articulation of consonants in which the tongue makes contact with the front part of the palate, just behind the alveolar area; sounds articu- lated with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the back part of the teeth ridge. Power mechanism – a group of speech organs which supplies energy for sound production, it includes lungs, diaphragm, windpipe, bronchi. 69
Pragmalinguistics – a branch of linguistics that studies what linguistic means and ways of influence on a hearer to choose in order to bring about certain effects in the process of communication. Prehead – the unstressed syllables which precede the first stressed syllable of the head. The prehead is normally pronounced on the low or mid pitch level. If it is pronounced on a pitch somewhat higher than the normal pitch (High Irregular Prehead) or somewhat low (Low Irregular Prehead) the utterance acquires emphasis and emotional connotations. Principal allophones – allophones which do not undergo any significant changes in the chain of speech. Prominence – singling out acoustically, which produces the effect of greater loudness; the extent to which a sound stands out from others because of its sonority, length, stress, and pitch. Prosody – a complex unity formed by significant variations of pitch, tempo, loudness and timbre; non-segmental phenomena regarded as the modifications of fundamental frequency (the frequency of the vibrations of the vocal cords over their whole length), intensity and duration at the level of their acoustic properties. The notion of prosody is broader than the notion of intonation, whereas prosody of the utterance and intonation are equivalent notions. Prosody and intonation are characterized by such distinct qualities as stress and pitch prominence at the level of perception. Psycholinguistics – a branch of linguistics which covers an extremely broad area, from acoustic phonetics to language pathology, and includes such problems as acquisition of language by children, memory, attention, speech perception, second- language acquisition and so on. Publicistic style – a style of speech used in public discussions on political, judicial or economic topics, sermons, parliamentary debates. Q Qualitative – connected with spectral characteristics of a sound. Quantitative – referring to the length of a sound. R Realization – the physical event of producing a phoneme as audible sound. Recessive stress – stress that falls on the first syllable or the root of the word if it is 70
preceded by a prefix that has lost its meaning, e.g. ˋimport, beˋfore. Recessive tendency – the tendency which consists in gradual shifting of word accent to the first syllable (which is usually the root of the word). Reciprocal assimilation – bilateral assimilation, when the neighbouring sounds are equally affected by assimilation. For example, in the word twice /t/ is labialized under the influence of /w/, and /w/ in its turn is devoiced under the influence of /t/. Reduced vowel – a weakened vowel; a vowel that is pronounced with a noncontrasting centralized quality, although in the underlying form of a word it is part of a full set of contrasts. The second vowel in emphasis is a reduced form of the vowel /ӕ/, as in emphatic. Reduction – weakening (either qualitative or quantitative) of vowels in unstressed positions. Regressive assimilation – the process when the second of the neighbouring sounds influences the first and makes it similar to it. For example, in the combination in the /n/ is regressively assimilated by /ð/ and becomes dental and is pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth (its free variant is pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teethridge). Relative sonority theory, or the prominence theory – It was created by O. Jespersen. It considers that sounds tend to group themselves according to their sonority. Pronounced with uniform force, length and pitch, speech sounds differ in sonority (prominence, audibility or carrying power). The most sonorous sounds are vowels, less sonorous are sonorants /w, j, r, m, n, ŋ/ and the least sonorous are noise consonants. Resonator mechanism – a group of speech organs which can change their shape and volume, thus forming the spectral component of the sound, it includes nasal and mouth cavities. Retentive tendency – this tendency is characterized by the retention of accent in the derivative on the same syllable on which it falls in the parent word, e.g. ˈsimilar, asˈsimilate. Rhyme – the vowel (nucleus) and any consonants occurring after the vowel in a syllable. Rhythm – recurrence of stressed syllables at more or less equal intervals of time in speech. See also syllable-timed, stressed-timed. Rhythmic (accentual) group – a unit of the rhythmic organization of an utterance; 71
a speech segment which contains a stressed syllable and a number of unstressed ones. The most frequent type of an English rhythmic group includes two-four syllables, one of which is stressed. S Scale – the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables of a syntactic whole. See also Head. Scale of sonority – the arrangement of phonemes according to their degree of loud- ness. According to this scale the most sonorous are front low vowels, then go sonants and voiced consonants. Voiceless consonants are characterized by minimal sonority. Secondary articulation – an articulation made by two of the organs of speech that are not involved in the primary articulation. Secondary stress – a less strong stress than a primary one, usually precedes the primary stress in a word. Segment – in phonetics it is the shortest part of speech continuum – a sound or a phoneme. Segmental phoneme – the shortest part of speech continuum that is capable of differentiating words. Segmental Phonetics – a division of phonetics which is concerned with individual sounds (“segments” of speech). Semantically distributional method (semantic method) of phonological analy- sis – It is based on a phonemic rule, that phonemes can distinguish words and mor- phemes when opposed to one another. The semantic method attracts great significance to meaning. It consists of the systematic substitution of the sound for another in order to ascertain in which cases where the phonetic context remains the same such substitu- tion leads to a change of meaning. This process is called the communication test. It consists in finding minimal pairs of words and their grammatical form. Semantic function: in phonetics the term is used in connection with the distinctive function (semantic role) of phonetic means. Sentence stress (Utterance stress) – the greater degree of prominence given to certain words in an utterance. These words are usually nouns, adjectives, notional verbs and adverbs, interjections, numerals, demonstrative, possessive, emphasizing pronouns, interrogative words and two-syllable prepositions. The distribution of sen- tence stress is determined by the semantic factor. Short vowels – the vowels having a relatively smaller length, or quantity in com- 72
parison with the long vowels (other conditions remaining the same). Short English /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ differ from the long /i:/ and /u:/ also in quality. Sibilant – a speech sound in which there is high-pitched, turbulent noise, as in English [s] and [ʃ] in sip and ship. In English sibilants are /s, z, ʒ/. Silent pause – a stop in the phonation (a stop of the work of the vocal cord, which results in the cessation of sound). Silent stop – the medial stage in /p, t, k/ articulation that is characterized by the “loss of plosion” in cases like: past perfect, blackboard, eight days. Simple tune – an intonation-group corresponding to a grammatical sentence and marked by specific characteristics of tone, stress and duration, serving to express se- mantic completeness and independence – the relevant features of an utterance. Sociolinguistics – a branch of linguistics that studies aspects of the language (pho- netics, lexis, grammar) with reference to their social functions in the society. So so- ciolinguistics explains the language phenomena in connection with factors outside the language itself in terms of large-scale social structure and in terms of how people use language in communication. Soft palate – the back, soft part of the hard palate. Another name for the soft palate is velum. Sonority – a degree of loudness relative to that of other sounds with the same length, stress and pitch. Sound – a material unit, produced by speech organs. A sound can be viewed from the articulatory, acoustic, auditory and functional points of view. Spectral analysis – the process of mathematically breaking down the complex waveform of speech sounds into energy at different frequencies to allow detailed anal- ysis. Spectrogram – a picture of the spectrum of sounds, their frequency, intensity and time. Spectrograph – a device which carries out the spectral analysis of speech. Speech melody – the variations in the pitch of the voice in connected speech. Stress – a greater degree of prominence which is caused by loudness, pitch, the length of a syllable and the vowel quality. Stressed-timed languages – in these languages stressed syllables tend to occur at relatively regular intervals irrespectively of the number of unstressed syllables separat- ing them. 73
Stess pattern of the word (the accentual structure of a word) – the correlation of degrees of prominence of the syllable in a word forms the stressed pattern of the word. Strong form – the form in which a word is pronounced when it is stressed. This term is usually applied only to words that normally occur unstressed and with a weak form, such as to and a. Stress-groups – groups of syllables unified by a stressed syllable. Each stress- group is a semantic unit. Strong vowel – the full form of a vowel in the stressed position. Stylistic modifications – sound changes which happen under the influence of ex- tra-linguistic factors. Suprasegmental features – phonetic features such as stress, length, tone, and in- tonation, which are usually a property of stretches of speech longer than the individual segment. Supraphaphrasal unity – a totality of information groups or utterances, united by the general subtopic and common intonation key. Suprasegmental Phonetics – a division of phonetics whose domain is larger units of connected speech: syllables, words, phrases and texts. Syllable – a sound sequence, consisting of a centre which has little or no obstruction to airflow and which sounds comparatively loud; before and after this centre there will be greater obstruction to airflow and less loud sound. A syllable is a phonological unit consisting of a vowel and any consonants which form its beginning or end. Syllables seem to be necessary units in the mental organization and production of utterances. Syllable pattern – the type of syllable most common for language. English is characterized by (C)VC syllable pattern and Russian by CV pattern. Syllable-timed languages – in these languages all syllables, whether stressed or unstressed, tend to occur at regular time-intervals and the time between stressed will be shorter or longer depending on the number of unstressed syllables separating them. Syntagm – a group of words which is semantically and syntactically complete. T Target position – an idealized articulatory position that can be used as a reference point in describing how a speaker produces utterances. Tempo – the rate of the utterance and pausation, it is often measured in syllables 74
per second or average syllable length in milliseconds (ms). Temporal component of intonation: it consists of pauses, duration, rhythm. Tense – historically long vowels in the articulation of which muscular tension of speech organs is great: /i. ɑ. ɔ. u. ɜ:/. In English, the tense vowels are those that can occur in stressed open syllables such as [ɔ:] in bore. Terminal tone – the nucleus and the tail of the utterance; a change of pitch at the junction (the joining of two sounds or words) of two sense-groups. Tertiary stress – a less strong stress than the primary one, usually follows the primary stress in a word. Theoretical Phonetics – a branch of phonetics which is mainly concerned with the functioning of phonetic units in the language. It discusses the problems of phonetics in academic terms and gives a scientific approach to the phonetic theory. Theory of muscular tension (or the articulatory effort theory) – according to this theory a syllable is characterized by variations in muscular tension. The energy of articulation increases at the beginning of a syllable, reaches its maximum with the vowel (or a sonant) and decreases towards the end of the syllable. So, the syllable is an arc of muscular tension. Timbre – voice quality. Tone – Sounds may be periodical and non-periodical. If the vibrations of a physical body are rhythmical, the auditory impression of periodic waves is a musical tone, or in speech – a speech tone. Tone languages – the meaning of words in these languages depends on the varia- tions of voice pitch in relation to neighbouring syllables. Toneme – the toneme of a sentence or of a sense-group is a separate phonological unit, because it performs the distinctive function, e.g. “not ˋonce – “never”, “not ˊonce – “many times”. Tongue – the most movable and flexible speech organ. Tonic syllable – the syllable within a tone group that stands out because it carries the major pitch change, also called nucleus. Trachea – the “wind pipe” passing up from the lungs to the vocal tract beginning with the larynx. Tune – the term which is used to refer to the pitch pattern of the whole intonation- group. 75
U Unicentral consonants – consonants pronounced with a single articulatory ob- struction (complete or incomplete); e.g. /t, d, k, g, p, b, s, s, z, f, v, ŋ, h/. Unilateral – the lateral sonant /l/ pronounced with only one side of the tongue lowered (usually it is the left side of the tongue). Unrounded – an articulation in which the lips are in a spread or neutral position. Utterance – a spoken sentence or a phrase; it is the main communicative unit. It is characterized by semantic entity which is expressed by all the language means: lexical, grammatical and prosodic. Utterance stress – See Sentence stress. Utterance stress is a prosodic phenom- enon of speech with a linguistic function of indicating the relative importance of vari- ous elements in an utterance. V Variations (“in stylistic variations”) – variations in the pronunciation of speech sounds, words and sentences peculiar to different styles of speech. Vibrator mechanism – a group of speech organs which vibrate while the air pass- es through, thus producing voice, it includes larynx, vocal cords, glottis. Vocal cords (folds) – two soft folds in the larynx which can be brought together and apart, thus producing voice Vocal tract – the air passages above the vocal folds which form the system used to produce speech. This starts at the larynx and includes the pharynx, the mouth, and the nasal cavity. Voiced consonants – sounds produced when the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate. Voiced pauses – they have usually the quality of the central vowel [ɜ:(ə)] with or without nasalization [ə(m)]. They are used to signal hesitation or doubt and therefore are called hesitation pauses. Voiceless consonants – sounds produced when the vocal cords are apart and don’t vibrate, as in English [s] in sea. Voice quality – one of the suprasegmental features of speech that can be controlled by speakers. Voicing – the vibration of the vocal folds which accompanies many speech sounds, particularly vowels. 76 Undertone – a low tone of the voice.
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