Taking care when handling any collection item is one of the more effective, cost-efficient, and easily achieved preservation measures.
Magnetic tape (Reel-to-Reel or Open Reel)
Magnetic tape (Cassettes, Audio and Video)
Grooved discs and cylinders, optical discs, and magnetic tape are made of modern materials that may have inherent chemical instabilities. Good storage is especially critical to the preservation of these materials.
*Demagnetization is unlikely to occur in most situations, but keep magnetic tape away from the magentic fields created by motors, transformers, loudspeakers, vacuum cleaners, and television sets.
Packaging and Storage Containers
The Northeast Document Conservation Center has put together very useful technical leaflets on storage enclosures for collection materials as well as a list for Conservation/Preservation Supplies and Equipment — Archival Supplies. See additional lists of preservation suppliers .Maintaining Playback Equipment and Cleaning Audio Visual Materials
Cleaning Playback Machines
Follow the manufacturer's instructions for keeping playback machines clean and well maintained. Professionals knowledgable about audio visual playback machines and with the proper equipment should perform more thorough maintenance and cleaning.
Cleaning Audio Visual Materials
Sound cleaning procedures for audio visual materials is different for each format. Cleaning of magnetic tape and of cylinders is a delicate undertaking and should be carried out only by a preservation specialist in these activities and is not covered here.
For cleaning grooved and optical discs (i.e. acetate, lacquer, shellac, and vinyl records; CDs; DVDs), use canned air to blow away dust. If it is necessary to use a cleaning solution, the Library of Congress may use the following Record Cleaning Solution:
1. Pour 2 mL of Tergitol™ 15-S-7 Surfactant into a 4 L container (glass, stainless steel type 304 or 316, fiberglass-reinforced polyester, polyethylene, or polypropylene) and fill with deionized water, which results in a 0.05% solution.
2. Store the solution in a non-food refrigerator.
3. Store the pure Tergitol™ in its original container (preferably under nitrogen) in a non-food refrigerator.
4. Transfer only the amount of solution immediately needed to a spray bottle for manual cleaning or to the indicated container for mechanized cleaning.
5. To clean discs by hand: Spray the solution onto the surface of the grooved or optical disc; wipe off solution and surface contaminants with a non-abrasive, lint-free lens cloth; thoroughly rinse with deionized water; dry the disc with a dry, clean, nonabrasive, lint-free lens cloth.
5. To use the solution in a mechanized cleaner: Put just enough solution into the cleaner reservoir so that fresh solution is used each day or remove the solution every day and store in a non-food refrigerator; thoroughly rinse disc with deionized water (do not allow any cleaner solution to remain on disc); dry the disc with a dry, clean, nonabrasive, lint-free lens cloth.
Caution: Only persons trained in the safe handling and disposal of chemicals and hazardous wastes should prepare and use the Record Cleaning Solution. Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be worn during the preparation and use of the cleaning solution.
Safety Data Sheets (Material Safety Data Sheets) for Tergitol™ and for the Record Cleaning Solution. Because the Record Cleaning Solution contains less than 1% of Tergitol™, it does not have to be listed on the data sheet.
The Library of Congress shares this information as a public service. The effectiveness of this cleaning solution has not been compared to commercial products and no guarantee is implied or intended that it will meet the needs of all users. Institutions or individuals who prepare or use the solution do so at their own risk. The Library of Congress will not be liable for any injury to any person, animal, or ecosystem, or for damage to any item resulting from the use of any of the materials, chemicals, or procedures described here.
The following references are freely available online and provide more detailed information on the care, handling, and storage of magnetic tape and of optical media in particular.
Byers, Fred R. Information Technology: Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs — A Guide for Librarians and Archivists. NIST Special Publication 500-252. National Institute of Standards and Technology and Council on Library and Information Resources, October 2003.
Dale, Robin et al. Audio Preservation: A Selective Annotated Bibliography and Brief Summary of Current Practices. Chicago: American Library Association, 1998.
Van Bogart, John W.C. Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling: A Guide for Libraries and Archives. National Media Laboratory, June 1995.
The Association of Moving Image Archivists. Videotape Preservation Fact Sheets .
Conservation OnLine. Audio Preservation .
Conservation OnLine. Electronic Storage Media.
Conservation OnLine. Video Preservation .
Image Permanence Institute. The Preservation of Magnetic Tape Collections: A Perspective. Final Report to the National Endowment for the Humanities Division of Preservation and Access. December 2006.
Lyrasis. Preservation Recording, Copying and Storage Guidelines for Audio Tape Collections .
National Park Service. Conserve O Gram 19/8: Preservation of Magnetic Media. July 1993.
Stanford University Libraries Preservation Department. Guidelines for Storing, Handling, and Marking Optical Media in SULAIR [Stanford University Library and Academic Information Resources] Collections .Bibliography
Child, Margaret S. Directory of Information Sources on Scientific Research Related to the Preservation of Sound Recordings, Still and Moving Images, and Magnetic Tape. Washington, D.C. Commission on Preservation and Access, 1993.
Gibson, Gerald D. "Preservation and conservation of sound recordings." In: Henderson, Kathryn Luther; Henderson, William T. Conserving and preserving materials in non-book formats. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1991. 27-44.
Pickett, A. G.; Lemcoe, M. M. Preservation and storage of sound recordings: A Study supported by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, 1959.
Note: Bibliography; photographs; illustrations; diagrams. Reprint available from Association for Recorded Sound Collections; attn Elwood McKee; 118 Monroe St. Apt. 610; Rockville, MD 20850-2511. The basic document on the preservation and storage of all audio recordings before CDs reports on a study of preservation and storage of the more common sound recordings of the period. Conclusions include information and-or recommendations on storage environment, control of mold and fungus, furniture, and packaging.
Schüller, Dietrich. "Handling, storage, and preservation of sound recordings under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions." In: Fontes Artis Musicae. 1986 (33): 100-104.
Varcla, Allan. "Art of audio archiving in the '90s." Pro Sound News. 1994 (Mar 15).
Note: Presents the complications in archiving that have taken place with the advent of digital audio recording technology, most notably incompatibility of systems and/or media. Presents comments on analog tapes from John Matarazzo, manager of technical services for Sony, concerning binder breakdown, crystallizing or oxidizing of lubricants, and treatment resulting in temporary stability in order to make working copies; continues with uncertainty of how well digital tapes store and critical nature of temperature and humidity in storage, with information on metal evaporated tape, with some of advantages of optical recording technology, that Open Media Framework (OMF) is addressing problem of incompatibility and back up systems. "The requirements of OMF are that we continually keep it backwardly compatible so, as we extend the capabilities in the file format and the specification, we will continue to support the things that were in there originally. That means that you can never have an OMF file that you can't go back to and open and process with the capabilities that you have at that time."
American National Standards Institute. Optical disc media: Storage. New York LANSI, 1997 (ANSI/NAPM IT9.25-1997).
Berger, Myron. "Record Cleaners and the Real World." High Fidelity 3 (7): 43-46 (July 1980).
Bouley, Raymond J. "The Life and death of CD-ROM." CD-ROM Librarian. 146-151 (January 1992).
"Compact disc problems." Conservation Administration News 36: 20 (1989).
Note: Information on problems with compact disc in relation to deterioration caused by label ink, oxidation of aluminum, and storage conditions.
Day, Rebecca. "Where's the rot? A Special report on CD longevity." Stereo Review 54 (4): 23-24 (April 1989).
Fantel, Hans. "Pampered record can live to be 100." New York Times. 1976 Oct 10; D: 26-28.
Note: Reports on tests of LP record wear, and on cleaning devices and agents, measuring the increase of noise and distortion in successive plays of discs cleaned each time before playing. Concludes that such a disc almost as good after 200 plays as when new, but that a dirty, neglected disk may be badly damaged in less than twenty plays.
Fantel, Hans. "Keeping it clean. Solutions for record care." Opera news. 1977 Apr 2; 41: 38-39.
Note: Includes information on Zerostat, Staticmaster, Discwasher, Radio Shack's Hydro-Stor, Audio-Technica's AT610, Watts' Disc-Preener and Manual Parastat, Audio Technica AT6002, Vac-O-Rec, and Fidelipac's Spin & Clean Record Washer.
Foster, Edward J. "A Selected--and Selective--Bestiary of Disc-Care Accessories." High Fidelity 28 (2): 43-48 (February 1978).
Hyperion Records. Bronzing CD's: How to replace your corroded Hyperion CDs following the closure of the PDO [Philips & Du Pont Optical] Helpline in November 2006.
Lumley, Enid. "Record Cleaning Machines." IAR Hotline 23: 7-17 (July 1982).
Lumley, Enid. "Record Cleaning Fluids." IAR Hotline 23: 1-7 (July l982).
Maier, Bruce. "In Search of the Perfect Record Cleaner." High Fidelity 22 (9) 52-55 (September 1972).
Mastricola, Scott. "Record Wear." Stereo Review 36 (6): 56-60 (July 1976).
Pisha, B. V. "Record Cleaners Revisited." Audio 54 (5): 40-49 (May 1970).
Ranada, David. "How to Handle Records." Stereo Review 47 (9): 62-63 (September 1982).
Saffady, William. "Stability, care, and handling of microforms, magnetic media, and optical disks." Library Technology Reports. 1991 Feb; 27(1): 5-116.
Note: Bibliographic references. Reports on survey of currently available information about the stability, care, and handling of non-book media, including microforms, magnetic media, and optical disks. Organized according to media type, each including an introduction to the media and to its physical and application characteristics; description of recording technologies and technical processes; scientific information about stability; discussion of environmental and other factors which can affect the chemical behavior and physical properties of the media; and guidelines for care, handling and storage.
Woodcock, Roberick; Wielage, Marc. "Laser rot." Video. 1987 Apr. 49-52.
Note: Includes description of deterioration of signal on video discs and possible causes; gives partial list of some titles where problem has been found.
Ampex Corp. Guide to the care and handling of magnetic tape. Redwood City, CA: Ampex Recording Media Corp.
Note: Modified reprint included in VanBogart, John W. C. Magnetic tape storage and handling. A Guide for libraries and archives (Washington, D.C. St. Paul, MN; Commission on Preservation and Access, National Media Lab, 1995)
Ampex Corp; Ostertag, John. Product Information: 467 R-DAT Digital Audio Tape:Competitive Performance Review [press release]. Redwood City, CA: Ampex Recording Media Corp.; . 3 p.
Note: Reviews the performance characteristics of the cited Ampex product; in doing so, includes the strongest statement yet from a manufacturer concerning use of R-DAT as an archival medium: "Ampex's position about archiving valuable source programming to R-DAT is simple. We do not recommend it." They, then, give three reasons why it is not advocated: retrievability of damaged analog vs. total loss of digital data; future access to recorders and lack of experience with media and systems; and doubtful interchangability of tape and machines.
Audio Engineering Society. AES Recommended practice for audio preservation and restoration:Storage of polyester-based magnetic tape. New York; AES. 1997 (AES22-1997).
DeLancie, Philip. "Sticky-shed syndrome: Tips on saving your damaged tape." In: Mix Magazine ; 1990 May: 148-152.
Note: Describes the problems, the likely causes, and a proposed solution to the sticky-shed problem with magnetic tape.
Fox, Barry. "Master tapes come to sticky end." In: New Scientist ; 1992 September 22; 127(1735): 15.
Note: Reports problem of deteriorating sound recording tape, result of which is that the tapes are very difficult to run and may, in serious cases, jam in the recorder. The cause is thought to be the deterioration of the polyurethane binder used to hold the magnetic material onto the tape base, probably caused by hydrolysis of the polyurethane brought about by atmospheric moisture adsorbed onto the tape surface. A method for temporarily reducing the problem so that copy recordings can be made is described.
Kent, Scott. Binder breakdown in back-coated tapes. Recording Engineer Producer 19 (7): 80-81 (July 1988).
The preservation procedures described here have been used by the Library of Congress in the care of its collections and are considered suitable by the Library as described; however, the Library will not be responsible for damage to your collection should damage result from the use of these procedures.
The Commission took note with appreciation of developments regarding the UNCITRAL Law Library, in particular those relating to the development of online resources and audio-visual materials .
It provides a range of opportunities to increase public understanding of the Tribunal's work through books, journals, newspapers, legal documents, audio-visual materials and information briefings.
In IAEA, public information is a programme in its own right, covering, inter alia, media relations, outreach to civil society, and publications and audio-visual materials .
However, if the long-term preservation of the audio-visual materials is not addressed, the voluminous collection of materials covering the historic trials will decay and become unusable in 10 years time.
The Department is entrusted with unique audio-visual materials consisting of approximately 55,000 hours of film and video recordings, 80,000 hours of audio recordings and 600,000 photographs documenting more than 63 years of the work of the Organization.
The NCCA encourages the development of a self-sustaining range of publications and audio-visual materials on Philippine culture and the arts and current forms of cultural and artistic expression for Filipino and international audiences alike.
A youth education programme was recently launched in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. ACHAP is providing funds to procure computers, videos and other audio-visual materials. which will be distributed to schools.
Resources amounting to approximately $7.6 million were proposed for the redaction of audio-visual materials and the archiving of records, while some $41.5 million was proposed for the accrued liabilities related to after-service health insurance and pensions of retired judges.
Included in the overall resource requirements are provisions for the redaction and digitization of all audio-visual materials including archiving the records of the Office of the Prosecutor, and the accrued liabilities related to after-service health insurance and pensions of retired judges.
The organization supports the discriminated and oppressed castes of Nepal, by publishing literature, research articles, and audio-visual materials .
Audiovisual materials are instructional materials that present information to students in ways that do not involve the use of paper and pencil. Audiovisual materials are useful in instruction because they take learning away from a textbook-only approach. Many students find their classes more enjoyable when the teachers use photographs, films and music to bring the content to life.Audiovisual Materials Used in the Past
Two of the most traditional audiovisual materials are films and filmstrips. While films are still used in the classroom setting, filmstrips are almost unheard of these days. A filmstrip is a series of still images projected onto a screen, accompanied by a recorded narration. A beeping noise on the narration tells the person controlling the filmstrip when to advance to the next image. More advanced filmstrip projectors automatically advance themselves.
Traditionally, films for educational use were displayed using a two-reel film projector, not a DVD player. For decades it was standard practice in teacher's college to learn how to thread a film projector. Few K-12 schools in the United States still have a film projector on hand.Audiovisual Materials in Common Use Now
Today's teachers still show films in class, but it has become more common to use a DVD player. In many classes a separate player is no longer even needed, as up-to-date computers have DVD drives. To use a computer to play a DVD for the class, a computer projector is required, but many classrooms are increasingly equipped with this latest forms of audiovisual equipment.
Some classrooms still use television sets instead of a projected image. Some teachers still use VHS video casettes to show movies on TV sets, but DVDs are more common; most new instructional videos aren't released on VHS any longer.The Digital Revolution
Audiovisual materials now often take the form of a computer file that is played using software installed on the teacher's computer. Instead of purchasing a DVD to use in classes, schools sometimes now subscribe to digital video services such as United Streaming, available through Discovery Education. These services provide Internet access to tens of thousands of videos, far more than any single teacher could hope to amass in a classroom collection. Access is immediate; there is no need to wait for items to be shipped.
Subscription video services allow teachers to download videos for permanent storage on school computers and also permit videos to be streamed through the Internet. These services have significant additional benefits. They often offer coordinating materials for videos, such as tests, worksheets and teacher's guides, which teachers can download for immediate access. They also have divided long videos into logical segments, making it possible to download just one portion to show. In addition, they include other audiovisual materials besides video. Most services also include audio clips and still photographs, all in downloadable digital format.Best Practices for Audiovisual Materials
Although audiovisual materials can help make the classroom a more lively and engaging instructional environment, they are most effective when used with care. Best practices for teachers include following some basic guidelines, including not showing an entire film or video unless all portions of it are relevant. Teachers should show only the sections that relate to the learning objectives they have established for their students. Teachers should also preview all video material completely. Even instructional videos can contain graphic images that are not appropriate for certain grade levels. No teacher wants to see these for the first time when students are present. Finally, if your school's Internet connection is unreliable, it pays to download digital content in advance instead of streaming it. You are less likely to have an interrupted lesson if you play the content from a local computer.
(viii) Audio-visual resources: electronic and print catalogue of all UN-Habitat publications and audio and video issuances, including films, videotapes, radio broadcasts, B-rolls of news, public service announcements, documentaries and short feature programmes on human settlements issues,
projects and events, such as the World Urban
[. ] Forum and World Habitat Day (30); media material, including press releases,audio-visual materialand press conferences for the organization (30)
During the biennium 2012-2013, resources amounting to $11,916,700
are proposed for the
[. ] continuation of the redaction of theaudio-visual materialand for the archiving of the records [. ]
of the Office of the
Prosecutor and the Judicial and Legal Services Division, as well as the digitization and archiving of the administrative records of the Division of Administrative Support Services under the Registry.
The need to redact the audio-visual recordings of the trial proceedings of the Tribunal was first identified in July 2003, when a plan was developed to implement a real-time redaction procedure in the courtrooms and
[. ] previously generatedaudio-visual materialfor the purpose of creating redacted versions of theaudio-visual materialgene rated between [. ]
In its resolution 64/18, the General Assembly requested the Department, inter alia,
to continue to issue and
[. ] update publications andaudio-visual materialsont he various aspects [. ]
of the question of Palestine
in all fields, including materials concerning relevant recent developments, in particular the efforts to achieve a peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine.
The Fund, governed by Manual Appendix 13B, is credited primarily with “(a) revenue derived from the sale of UNESCO publications; (b) royalties derived from the sale of the rights of publications for which UNESCO owns the
copyright; (c) revenue derived from
[. ] the sale of auditory andvisual material”, other revenue and gifts, [. ]
bequests and subventions.
been good, although the release of
to the need to maintain reliability,
the obligation to notify the families of the critically injured soldiers and the long authorization process at levels above the IDF Spokesperson Unit.
The IGF should recognize and acknowledge the substantial contributions from host countries throughout the hosting of the global IGF, which include significant financial and in-kind voluntary efforts such as providing services for the
use of remote hubs and remote
as per host country agreements.
The name and personality of Elder Cleopa of Romania is today known not only in his homeland but also throughout the world. Father Cleopa was born in 1912 in the town of Soulitsa and district of Botosani into a pious village family and named Constantine. His parents were called Alexander and Anna and he was the ninth of their ten children. The religious upbringing that he and all his siblings received from childhood as well as their great inclination toward the monastic life were so strong that five of the ten children, along with their mother in her later years, took up the monastic life and were clothed in the monastic Schema.
The first duty Father Cleopa sought from the faithful was the devout preservation of the Orthodox Faith, meaning all of the dogmas and mysteries of the Holy Orthodox Church, for without true Faith, even if all possible good works are performed, no one can be saved.
Saint Theophan the Recluse -The Path of Prayer (Four Sermons on Prayer)
Metropolitan KALLISTOS Ware - What is Prayer?
His Excellency, the Most Reverend Metropolitan Kalistos (Ware) of Diokleia (b. 1934, also known by his lay name, Timothy Ware) is a titular metropolitan of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Great Britain. From 1966-2001, he was Spalding Lecturer of Eastern Orthodox Studies at Oxford University, and has authored numerous books and articles pertaining to the Orthodox Christian faith.
Speaker Kostas Zalalas
Great contemporary theolgian. He is well versed in ancient and Koine Greek. Has read the original writings of the Father's in Greek, and is very true to the faith.
A video of a seminar given by Fr. Aris Metrakos of Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church San Francisco, CA, at Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral In Greenville, SC
Prior to coming to San Francisco, Father Aris served the community of Holy Trinity in Columbia, South Carolina. He also served as an Orthodox Christian chaplain to the University of South Carolina, and served the Orthodox Christian Fellowship chapter he founded. Father Aris was ordained to the Diaconate in January 1988, and to the Holy Priesthood in January 1989. Following ordination, he also served parishes in the Metropolises of Boston and Atlanta, prior to his assignment in Columbia, South Carolina. Father Aris holds a Master of Divinity (Summa Cum Laude) from Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology in Brookline, MA.
Audiovisual Services in the Central Library has videos on cassette tape, laser disc, and Digital Video Disc covering a huge range of subjects including:
AV material can be booked by library staff at any of the Lending or Reserve desks. Bookings can also be made via phone (8910) or email firstname.lastname@example.orgView Online
Academic Video Online cross-searches a package of video collections in 21 disciplines. The VAST content is growing steadily and will include access to 20,000 videos.
Provides real-time resources through recorded TV programmes, live streams and on demand videos. First-time users need to register.
To register for the first time:
Thereafter, the login requires that username and password.
Note: It is recommended that eTV is accessed using Firefox.Facilities for staff and students in the Central Library
Bookings for the use of these rooms are be made from the catalogue.Screening room (Room 201)
Room 201 is available for University academic staff to use in the course of their teaching. It contains the following:
The equipment can accommodate VHS formats PAL and NTSC as well as standard and long play.
Overhead and slide projectors are also available. The video projector also serves as a data show for Powerpoint presentations.
To schedule a time to use this room please contact the staff at Central Library, 1st Floor Service Desk.Using AV Equipment
Equipment is provided for the consultation of Library held AV materials. However, upon approval students may consult material not held by the Library when it is related to a University course.Other AV services on campus
Editing and copying services
WestCAL, Union Street. Or Audio Visual Support and Development Unit | Owheo Building 133 Union St East
Teaching & Learning Facilities | 51 Clyde Street, Or Audio Visual Support and Development Unit | Owheo Building 133 Union St East
Recreational viewing facilities
Clubs and Societies Building, Albany Street.Hocken Collections
Hocken Collections has New Zealand music and video/DVD titles from a wide range of eras and genres. Including:
Hocken also has recorded music content that spans the history of:
The musical formats range from 78rpm discs to CDs.Facilities
There is a playback area in Hocken Collections research room to listen and watch all formats of available material, including 78rpm discs, cassettes, and VHS video.Contact us
Audio-visual materials: DVDs, Video tapes, CDs, LDs, Cassette tapes, Records, etc.Using inside the library
Target: CDs, DVDs with clearance of copyright
Condition: up to 2 items / 3days (You cannot make renewals.)
* Requests for delivery within the university are available. Please apply at the main counter.
the loan procedure at main counter
* The self-checkout Machine is not available (There is a possibility of magnetic data erasure)
Please return to the main counter of the original library (Staff confirm status of the material).
Micro-materials: Microfilms, Microfiche
*Some Microfiche are not searchable. Please ask to main counter for assistance.Using Micro-materials: To browse and photocopy with the micro reader printer
Available: 9:00-12:15, 13:15-17:00 Weekday
fee of photocopy: 20 yen/page
* Those who belong to the University of Tsukuba can use micro materials bringing by yourself. Please apply at main counter.
To apply at main counter -> received materials
To browse & photocopy with micro reader pinter
To return materials at main counter and fee payment procedure
Features and collectionsIn the Audio-Visual Materials Room, phonographic records, CDs, Blu-rays, DVDs, LDs, VHSs are available In closed stacks
Go to other reading roomsBooks on music
Call-slip acceptance hours
Same-day service only (except for some materials that cannot be photoduplicated or can only be photoduplicated by later date service. For details, please ask at the counter).
In principle, photoduplication of jackets, record notes, words and musical scores requires written permission of the copyright holder. Please consult the staff.
Duplication of audio-visual materials is not permitted.
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