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Germanica - Isbn:9781625794376

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  • Book Title: Germanica
  • ISBN 13: 9781625794376
  • ISBN 10: 1625794371
  • Author: Robert Conroy
  • Category: Fiction
  • Category (general): Fiction
  • Publisher: Baen Publishing Enterprises
  • Format & Number of pages: 352 pages, book
  • Synopsis: Robert Conroy. BAEN BOOKS by ROBERT CONROY Himmler's War Rising Sun 1920: America's Great War Liberty 1784 1882: Custer in Chains Germanica Stormfront (upcoming) To purchase these and all Baen Book titles in ebook format, ...

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Germanica - ISBN:9781625794376

Best-selling alternate history master Robert Conroy returns to World War II, this time for a dangerous last stand of the Nazis in the heart of the Alps.

GERMANICA, ÜBER ALLES!

Deep in the heart of Europe's Alps in the redoubt called Germanica, Nazi propaganda master Josef Goebbels and a battalion of Nazi zealots hold out against a frantic final Allied push to end World War II. With Churchill losing his election, De Gaulle consolidating his rule over a newly liberated France, and Stalin asserting his own nefarious land-grab in Eastern Germany, only America, led by its untried new president Harry Truman, remains to face the toughest of Nazi warriors as they hunker down for a bitter fight to the last man.

Goebbels knows that if he can hold out just a bit longer, the war weary of the Western nations will back away from unconditional surrender for Germany, and he and his zealots can remain in power never to answer for their war crimes, and able to prepare for the moment when their hateful Nazi ideology is ready once again to rise from its alpine grave and strike at the heart of humanity!

But there are Americans and a few stalwart Europeans just as determined to put a final stake in the Nazi heart. It is now up to heroes in the making such as newly minted O.S.S. operative Ernie Janek, commando Captain Scott Tanner, and formerly enslaved Czech "Jew" Lena Bobek, to bring down the dark Nazi menace growing like a cancer in the mountainous heart of the continent.

At the publisher's request, this title is sold without DRM (Digital Rights Management).

About Germanica :
"[A] new and intriguing novel that takes the final days of the Third Reich as its jumping-off point. Conroy captures the intricacies of WWII with an eye for historical nuance, and he crafts a believable alternate ending to the war. [T]he story is buoyed by Conroy’s effective snapshot of the era."—Publishers Weekly

About Robert Conroy's Rising Sun :
“Conroy extrapolates a new and militarily plausible direction for WWII. A thrilling adventure.”—Booklist

About Robert Conroy’s Himmler’s War :
“[Conroy] adds a personal touch to alternate history by describing events through the eyes of fictional characters serving on the front lines. VERDICT: Historical accuracy in the midst of creative speculation makes this piece of alternate history believable.”–Library Journal

About Red Inferno: 1945
“An ensemble cast of fictional characters. and historical figures powers the meticulously researched story line with diverse accounts of the horrors of war, making this an appealing read for fans of history and alternate history alike.”—Publishers Weekly

“[E]ngrossing and grimly plausible. the suspense holds up literally to the last page.”—Booklist

About 1945:
“ moving and thought-provoking. ”—Publishers Weekly

About 1942 :
“. fans of Tom Clancy and Agent Jack Bauer should find a lot to like here.”—Publishers Weekly

“A significant writer of alternate history turns here to the popular topic of Pearl Harbor, producing. this rousing historical action tale.”—Booklist

“A high-explosive what-if, with full-blooded characters.”—John Birmingham, bestselling author ofWithout Warning

About 1901:
“. cleverly conceived. Conroy tells a solid what-if historical.”—Publishers Weekly

“. likely to please both military history and alternative history buffs.”—Booklist

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Articles

Germanica by Robert Conroy

Germanica

Best-selling alternate history master Robert Conroy returns to World War II, this time for a dangerous last stand of the Nazis in the heart of the Alps.

GERMANICA, UBER ALLES!

Deep in the heart of Europe's Alps in the redoubt called Germanica, Nazi propaganda master Josef Goebbels and a battalion of Nazi zealots hold out against a frantic final Allied push to end World War II. With Churchill losing his election, De Gaulle consolidating his rule over a newly liberated France, and Stalin asserting his own nefarious land-grab in Eastern Germany, only America, led by its untried new president Harry Truman, remains to face the toughest of Nazi warriors as they hunker down for a bitter fight to the last man.

Goebbels knows that if he can hold out just a bit longer, the war weary of the Western nations will back away from unconditional surrender for Germany, and he and his zealots can remain in power never to answer for their war crimes, and able to prepare for the moment when their hateful Nazi ideology is ready once again to rise from its alpine grave and strike at the heart of humanity!

But there are Americans and a few stalwart Europeans just as determined to put a final stake in the Nazi heart. It is now up to heroes in the making such as newly minted O.S.S. operative Ernie Janek, commando Captain Scott Tanner, and formerly enslaved Czech "Jew" Lena Bobek, to bring down the dark Nazi menace growing like a cancer in the mountainous heart of the continent.

At the publisher's request, this title is sold without DRM (Digital Rights Management).

About Germanica :
"[A] new and intriguing novel that takes the final days of the Third Reich as its jumping-off point. Conroy captures the intricacies of WWII with an eye for historical nuance, and he crafts a believable alternate ending to the war. [T]he story is buoyed by Conroy's effective snapshot of the era." - Publishers Weekly

About Robert Conroy's Rising Sun :
"Conroy extrapolates a new and militarily plausible direction for WWII. A thrilling adventure." - Booklist

About Robert Conroy's Himmler's War :
"[Conroy] adds a personal touch to alternate history by describing events through the eyes of fictional characters serving on the front lines. VERDICT: Historical accuracy in the midst of creative speculation makes this piece of alternate history believable." - Library Journal

About Red Inferno: 1945
"An ensemble cast of fictional characters. and historical figures powers the meticulously researched story line with diverse accounts of the horrors of war, making this an appealing read for fans of history and alternate history alike." - Publishers Weekly

"[E]ngrossing and grimly plausible. the suspense holds up literally to the last page." - Booklist

About 1945:
" moving and thought-provoking. " - Publishers Weekly

About 1942 :
". fans of Tom Clancy and Agent Jack Bauer should find a lot to like here." - Publishers Weekly

"A significant writer of alternate history turns here to the popular topic of Pearl Harbor, producing. this rousing historical action tale." - Booklist

"A high-explosive what-if, with full-blooded characters." - John Birmingham, bestselling author ofWithout Warning

About 1901:
". cleverly conceived. Conroy tells a solid what-if historical." - Publishers Weekly

". likely to please both military history and alternative history buffs." - Booklist

Robert Conroy is the author of a run of hugely popular alternate history novels, including Himmler's War. Rising Sun. 1920: America's Great War. Lib

Source:

www.fantasticfiction.com

The Theologia Germanica of Martin Luther by Bengt R

The Theologia Germanica of Martin Luther

The most in-depth and scholarly panorama of Western spirituality ever attempted!In one series, the original writings of the universally acknowledged teachers of the Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Islamic and Native AmericanMore The most in-depth and scholarly panorama of Western spirituality ever attempted!In one series, the original writings of the universally acknowledged teachers of the Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Islamic and Native American traditions have been critically selected, translated and introduced by internationally recognized scholars and spiritual leaders.

The texts are first-rate, and the introductions are informative and reliable. The books will be a welcome addition to the bookshelf of every literate religious persons". -- The Christian Century Less

Get a copy Friends’ Reviews

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Community Reviews

Michael rated it liked it

over 3 years ago

Luther declared that behind Scripture and Augustine this book was the most influential on his theological development. I had a love/hate relationship with parts of this book but overall it was interesting to see what impacted the great reformer.

Lorrie rated it liked it

over 2 years ago

This book is some what mystical and some what devotional. I appreciated the author's view of self will (we need to get rid of it) and become like Christ.

Dwight Davis rated it it was amazing

over 3 years ago

A really helpful little book of spirituality. Interesting to read knowing later theological developments and seeing how influential such an unknown work actually is.

W rated it it was ok

over 2 years ago

Source:

www.goodreads.com

Legio I Germanica

Legio I Germanica

Legio I Germanica

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=Legio I "Germanica"


caption=
dates= 48 BC to 70
country= Roman Republic and Roman Empire
type= Roman legion (Marian )
role= Infantry assault (some cavalry support)
size= Varied over unit lifetime. Approx. 3,500 fighting men + support at the time of creation.
garrison= Hispania Tarraconensis (30 - 16 BC ) Germania Inferior (beginning 1st century - 69 )
ceremonial_chief=
nickname= "Germanica", under Augustus
patron=
motto=
colors=
march=
mascot=Taurus
battles= Battle of Pharsalus ( 48 BC ) Cantabrian Wars (29 – 19 BC ) Drusus Germanic campaign Batavian rebellion ( 70 )
notable_commanders= Julius Caesar (campaign) Drusus (campaign) Fabius Valens (officer) Herennius Gallus (officer)
anniversaries=

Legio I "Germanica ", (Latin pronunciation: "prima germánica"), the "Germanic first legion", was a Roman legion. possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. After the Batavian rebellion ( 70 ), the remaining men of the "Germanica" were added to Galba 's seventh legion, which became VII "Gemina". The emblem of Legio I is unknown, but it was probably Taurus. like all the other legions levied by Caesar (except the V "Alaudae" ).

There are two theories about I "Germanica" recruitment. The most favored is that it was raised by Julius Caesar in 48 BC to fight in the civil war against Pompey. In that case it would have fought in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC .

A second theory attributes its recruitment to Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus. a partisan of Caesar, who died in the Battle of Forum Gallorum against Mark Antony in 43 BC. Legio I would have been recruited in that year for that campaign.Facts|date=February 2007

However recruited, Legio I was inherited by Augustus and therefore ought to have been entitled to the "cognomen" "Augusta" after distinguished service under his eyes; however, there was no Legio I Augusta. One explanation is that an event happened to prevent or take away that name.

Possible Spanish disgrace

The career of Legio I subsequent to the civil wars remains unknown for sure. It is believed to be identical to the Legio I that took part in the Spanish campaign against the Cantabrians conducted for Augustus by Marcus Agrippa and was disgraced there. Inscriptions on Spanish coins indicate that between 30 and 16 BC. some Legio I was stationed in Hispania Terraconensis. where they would have fought in the war against the Cantabrians. Dio Cassius ( [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/54*.html 54.11.5 ] ) says that one legion was stripped of its title, Augusta, after suffering reverses in that campaign. The two references are believed to be to the same legion, accounting for its early missing title and emblem.

Distinguished service in Germania

Around the turn of the century, Legio I appears on the Rhine frontier. The "Annales " of Tacitus state ( [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0078&layout=&loc=1.42 1.42.6 ] ) that they received standards from Tiberius. but when that was is not clear. This statement is problematic because only new or reconstituted legions received standards. The legion could have been reconstituted after Spain, but more likely it kept its "aquila " (which was only taken away on disbandment) and received new "vexillae", or manipular standards, which would indicate a reorganization with perhaps replacements.

The legion soon redeemed itself by winning the title "Germanica", for its distinguished service in Germania. Exactly when they won it is not known. They were initially stationed at Oppidum Ubiorum ( Cologne ) in the jurisdiction that was to become Germania Inferior. For the time being, the province contained five legions and was under Publius Quinctilius Varus .

In AD 9. Varus and three legions were lured away to the north to suffer extinction in the Battle of Teutoburg forest. Fortunately for Legio I he had not taken his entire command but left two legions in camp under "legati" or junior officers, Legio I being commanded by a nephew of Varus, Lucius Asprenas.

Most likely, the title "Germanica" was granted for service in Drusus ' subsequent punitive and exploratory campaigns against the Germanic tribes. Drusus was extremely popular. It was an honor to be in his service and he made sure that his men were honored properly.

Mutiny on the Limes Germanicus

After the defeat of Varus, Augustus' adoptive son Tiberius (brother of Drusus) assumed command of the army on the Rhine, which was reinforced to eight legions. When Tiberius returned to Italy in 13 AD, Augustus appointed Drusus' son, Germanicus. commander of the eight legions on the Rhine. In the following year Augustus died, Tiberius being his successor.

Subsequently Junius Blaesus, commander of three legions in summer camp in Pannonia. gave the men a holiday. A soldier who had been a comic actor, Percennius, addressed the men on that occasion on the subject of soldier's rights. They needed a fixed contract, he said, a term of service of 16 seasons instead of 25 or 30, and a pay raise. The speech was far from comic. The men as he spoke began raise a dais of earth around him and brought the standards and that attracted the attention of the Praetor. Blaesus. Unable to dissuade the men, he agreed to send his son, a tribune. to Tiberius with the demands. The men settled down to await the reply.

Word of the mutiny spread to construction crews of the legions in nearby Nauportus. Arresting their commander, Aufidienus Rufus, they forced him to march at the head of the return column carrying heavy baggage and asking him all the while how he liked it. They plundered "vici" as they went. Arriving in camp they raised a riot. Attempting to quell it, Blaesus had loyal troops throw the rioters in the guardhouse, but they were set free, the tribunes were ejected from camp, and a harsh centurion murdered.

The soldiers were on the point of killing each other when Tiberius' own son, Julius Caesar Drusus arrived in camp with some troops, sealed the gates and proceeded to investigate and settle the mutiny in tribunal. The men rejecting his proposals, he sent them to their tents and sent men to speak to them personally. Gradually the men were recalled to duty. Drusus had the leaders executed and returned to Rome. No action yet was taken on the issues.

The XXI "Rapax". V "Alaudae". I "Germanica" and XX "Valeria Victrix" of the army of "Germania Inferior" heard of the mutiny at their summer camp among the Ubii. Aroused by new recruits from the city of Rome, the men attacked the centurions by surprise, beating many to death and throwing the bodies into the Rhine. The main command was isolated and the men ran the camp. Hearing of the mutiny, Germanicus left his tax-collecting duties in Gaul and hastened to the camp with a small retinue. He was just as popular as his father had been.

After mingling with the men and hearing their complaints, Germanicus persuaded them into formation, had the standards brought out and began a dialogue with them. At one point they bared their backs to show Germanicus the scars from lashing. At another Germanicus drew his sword and offered to commit suicide, but was restrained. Another soldier offered him a sharper sword. He withdrew to his tent.

There he received word that the mutiny was about to become a state issue. Mutinous envoys were being sent to Cologne. there were plans to burn the city and sack Gaul. The enemy on the other side of the border was watching with interest, waiting to intervene. In realization of the common danger the men settled for immunity, double pay (which Germanicus gladly paid from his own funds on the spot) and an enlistment of sixteen years. I "Germanica" and the XX "Valeria Victrix" retired to Cologne, while Germanicus went to seek senatorial confirmation and approval by Tiberius.

Germanicus returned to Cologne with envoys from the Senate, arriving at night, which was misinterpreted by the men as signifying the agreement was off. They dragged Germanicus from his bed, but the matter was clarified next day. Upset, Germanicus tried to send his pregnant wife and young son off to safety, but the soldiers heard them weeping and came out to detain them. Aroused, Germanicus delivered one of the great orations in history, upholding the tradition of his family's ability in that area, saying, for example:

"For what have you not dared, what have you not profaned during these days? What name shall I give to this gathering? Am I to call you soldiers. when you have trampled under foot the Authority of the Senate. " ("Annales" 1.46 from the Perseus site)

Moved and stung to the quick, the soldiers settled the mutiny on the spot by general court martial conducted by the tribunes. The leaders were put in chains and brought to the dais, where they went before the troops one by one. The soldiers voted for guilt or innocence by voice. The guilty were thrown off the dais to be executed by the men. Each centurion then passed before the tribunal to be approved or disapproved. The approved kept their rank. The disapproved were discharged from the service. The terms of the agreement were faithfully kept. Germanicus returned to Rome.

I "Germanica" went back to duty, but not exactly with honor. It remained in Germania Inferior fighting in all the major campaigns along the Rhine and the Danube.

Final disgrace and disbandment

Finally the death of Nero and the year 69. the Year of the Four Emperors. arrived. The "Senatus populusque Romanus" could not decide on a suitable replacement for Nero. The various candidates fought for the distinction, introducing confusion on the Rhine frontier. The result was a general breakaway of the Celtic and Germanic tribes along the Rhine. They were categorically known as the Belgae at that time. Historians styled it the Batavian rebellion of 70 .

In essence the tribes along the Rhine believed that the Roman empire was finished and decided to set up a rump state in Gaul ruled from Triers by Gaius Julius Civilis. They managed to convince four legions and most of Gaul to swear allegiance to it. I "Germanica" was one of them, a fatal move for them. Units that tried to hold out against changing allegiance were attacked.

The victor of that infamous year of contention was Emperor Vespasian. He sent eight legions under Quintus Petillius Cerialis to the Rhine to clarify matters. On his approach, the four renegade legions repented and sought refuge in the future Alsace-Lorraine region on the left bank of the Rhine. Gaul repudiated the government at Triers, which begged finally for terms. Cerealis was lenient and forgave everyone.

Legio I did not return to station. After the pacification was complete, Vespasian himself came to the Rhine and disbanded two legions, one of which was I "Germanica". Enthusiasts of the Roman army would like to think that the men of the disbanded legions went into two new legions formed by Vespasian at that time. Disbandment, however, was a severe punishment, which would not have much point if the discharged men went right back into the army in some other legion. Perhaps some men were allowed to reenlist on the basis of individual merit. There is no evidence of any reconstitution of legions involving extensive elements of the disbanded ones. Vespasian simply replaced the discarded legions with newly recruited ones.Facts|date=February 2007

* List of Roman legions

* Parker, H.M.D. "The Roman Legions", Barnes & Noble, 1993, ISBN 0-88029-854-5
* Keppie, Lawrence, "The Making of the Roman Army", Barnes & Noble, 1994, ISBN 1-56619-359-1

* [http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/i_germanica.html livius.org account ]
* [http://www.primagermanica.com/ Legio I Germanica ]. Spanish Re-enactment Association

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010 .

Source:

en.academic.ru

Germanica eBook by Robert Conroy

Germanica Synopsis

Show more Show less

Best-selling alternate history master Robert Conroy returns to World War II, this time for a dangerous last stand of the Nazis in the heart of the Alps.

GERMANICA, ÜBER ALLES!

Deep in the heart of Europe's Alps in the redoubt called Germanica, Nazi propaganda master Josef Goebbels and a battalion of Nazi zealots hold out against a frantic final Allied push to end World War II. With Churchill losing his election, De Gaulle consolidating his rule over a newly liberated France, and Stalin asserting his own nefarious land-grab in Eastern Germany, only America, led by its untried new president Harry Truman, remains to face the toughest of Nazi warriors as they hunker down for a bitter fight to the last man.

Goebbels knows that if he can hold out just a bit longer, the war weary of the Western nations will back away from unconditional surrender for Germany, and he and his zealots can remain in power never to answer for their war crimes, and able to prepare for the moment when their hateful Nazi ideology is ready once again to rise from its alpine grave and strike at the heart of humanity!

But there are Americans and a few stalwart Europeans just as determined to put a final stake in the Nazi heart. It is now up to heroes in the making such as newly minted O.S.S. operative Ernie Janek, commando Captain Scott Tanner, and formerly enslaved Czech "Jew" Lena Bobek, to bring down the dark Nazi menace growing like a cancer in the mountainous heart of the continent.

At the publisher's request, this title is sold without DRM (Digital Rights Management).

About Germanica :
"[A] new and intriguing novel that takes the final days of the Third Reich as its jumping-off point. Conroy captures the intricacies of WWII with an eye for historical nuance, and he crafts a believable alternate ending to the war. [T]he story is buoyed by Conroy’s effective snapshot of the era."—Publishers Weekly

About Robert Conroy's Rising Sun :
“Conroy extrapolates a new and militarily plausible direction for WWII. A thrilling adventure.”—Booklist

About Robert Conroy’s Himmler’s War :
“[Conroy] adds a personal touch to alternate history by describing events through the eyes of fictional characters serving on the front lines. VERDICT: Historical accuracy in the midst of creative speculation makes this piece of alternate history believable.”–Library Journal

About Red Inferno: 1945
“An ensemble cast of fictional characters. and historical figures powers the meticulously researched story line with diverse accounts of the horrors of war, making this an appealing read for fans of history and alternate history alike.”—Publishers Weekly

“[E]ngrossing and grimly plausible. the suspense holds up literally to the last page.”—Booklist

About 1945:
“ moving and thought-provoking. ”—Publishers Weekly

About 1942 :
“. fans of Tom Clancy and Agent Jack Bauer should find a lot to like here.”—Publishers Weekly

“A significant writer of alternate history turns here to the popular topic of Pearl Harbor, producing. this rousing historical action tale.”—Booklist

“A high-explosive what-if, with full-blooded characters.”—John Birmingham, bestselling author ofWithout Warning

About 1901:
“. cleverly conceived. Conroy tells a solid what-if historical.”—Publishers Weekly

“. likely to please both military history and alternative history buffs.”—Booklist

Don't

Source:

store.kobobooks.com

Runica - Germanica

Runica - Germanica - Mediaevalia Aims and Scope

The chapters on the Middle Ages or on later epochs deal with questions of the reception of Antiquity or aspects of its continuity- e.g. the reception of the Germanic tribes in the 20th century and the history of Germanic and Nordic Studies, Runology, Old Germanic Studies and Early Germanic Languages and Literatures.

The various methodological approaches of the internationally renowned contributors combine to give a comprehensive and many-facetted view of recent research. In addition, the articles cover the spectrum of the scholarly work and interests of the Göttingen medievalist and runologist Klaus Düwel, to whom this volume is dedicated.

Details

23 x 15.5 cm xv, 1024 pages Language: German Keyword(s):

MARC record More.

Wilhelm Heizmann is Professor of Old Scandinavian Studies in the Department of Nordic Philology of the Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich.

Astrid van Nahl has a PhD in Scandinavian Studies.

More by Heizmann, Wilhelm:

Source:

www.degruyter.com

Legio I Germanica

Legio I Germanica

Legio I Germanica (Latin for "First legion Germanica "; the cognomen Germanica is a reference to its service in Germania inferior) was a Roman legion. possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. After the Batavian rebellion (70), the remaining men of the Germanica were added to Galba 's seventh legion, which became VII Gemina . The emblem of Legio I is unknown, but it was probably Taurus. like all the other legions levied by Caesar (except the V Alaudae ).

Contents Origin Edit

There are two theories about I Germanica recruitment. The most favored is that it was raised by Julius Caesar in 48 BC to fight in the civil war against Pompey. In that case it would have fought in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC.

A second theory attributes its recruitment to Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus. a partisan of Caesar, who died in the Battle of Forum Gallorum against Mark Antony in 43 BC. Legio I would have been recruited in that year for that campaign. [ citation needed ]

However recruited, Legio I was inherited by Augustus and therefore ought to have been entitled to the cognomenAugusta after distinguished service under his eyes; however, there was no Legio I Augusta. One explanation is that an event happened to prevent or take away that name.

Possible Spanish disgrace Edit

The career of Legio I subsequent to the civil wars remains somewhat unclear. It is believed to be identical to the Legio I that took part in the Spanish campaign against the Cantabrians conducted for Augustus by Marcus Agrippa and was disgraced there. Inscriptions on Spanish coins indicate that between 30 and 16 BC, some Legio I was stationed in Hispania Terraconensis. where they would have fought in the war against the Cantabrians. Dio Cassius (54.11.5 ) says that one legion was stripped of its title, Augusta, after suffering reverses in that campaign. The two references are believed to be to the same legion, accounting for its early missing title and emblem.

Distinguished service in Germania Edit

Around the turn of the century, Legio I appears on the Rhine frontier. The Annales of Tacitus state (1.42.6 ) that they received standards from Tiberius. but when that was is not clear. This statement is problematic because only new or reconstituted legions received standards. The legion could have been reconstituted after Spain, but more likely it kept its aquila (which was only taken away on disbandment) and received new vexillae. or manipular standards, which would indicate a reorganization with perhaps replacements.

The legion soon redeemed itself, winning the title Germanica for distinguished service in Germania. Exactly when they won it is not known. They were initially stationed at Oppidum Ubiorum (Cologne) in the jurisdiction that was to become Germania Inferior. For the time being, the province contained five legions and was under Publius Quinctilius Varus.

In AD 9, Varus and three legions were lured away to the north to suffer extinction in the Battle of Teutoburg forest. Fortunately for Legio I he had not taken his entire command but left two legions in camp under legati or junior officers, Legio I being commanded by a nephew of Varus, Lucius Asprenas.

Most likely, the title Germanica was granted for service in Drusus ' subsequent punitive and exploratory campaigns against the Germanic tribes. Drusus was extremely popular. It was an honor to be in his service and he made sure that his men were honored properly.

Mutiny on the Limes Germanicus Edit

After the defeat of Varus, Augustus' adoptive son Tiberius (brother of Drusus) assumed command of the army on the Rhine, which was reinforced to eight legions. When Tiberius returned to Italy in 13 AD, Augustus appointed Drusus' son, Germanicus. commander of the eight legions on the Rhine. In the following year Augustus died, Tiberius being his successor.

Subsequently Junius Blaesus, commander of three legions in summer camp in Pannonia, gave the men a holiday. A soldier who had been a claqueur, Percennius, addressed the men on that occasion on the subject of soldier's rights. They needed a fixed contract, he said, a term of service of 16 seasons instead of 25 or 30, and a pay raise. The speech was far from comic. The men as he spoke began raise a dais of earth around him and brought the standards and that attracted the attention of the Praetor. Blaesus. Unable to dissuade the men, he agreed to send his son, a tribune, to Tiberius with the demands. The men settled down to await the reply.

Word of the mutiny spread to construction crews of the legions in nearby Nauportus. Arresting their commander, Aufidienus Rufus, they forced him to march at the head of the return column carrying heavy baggage and asking him all the while how he liked it. They plundered vici as they went. Arriving in camp they raised a riot. Attempting to quell it, Blaesus had loyal troops throw the rioters in the guardhouse, but they were set free, the tribunes were ejected from camp, and a harsh centurion murdered.

The soldiers were on the point of killing each other when Tiberius' own son, Julius Caesar Drusus arrived in camp with some troops, sealed the gates and proceeded to investigate and settle the mutiny in tribunal. The men rejecting his proposals, he sent them to their tents and sent men to speak to them personally. Gradually the men were recalled to duty. Drusus had the leaders executed and returned to Rome. No action yet was taken on the issues.

The XXI Rapax . V Alaudae . I Germanica and XX Valeria Victrix of the army of Germania Inferior heard of the mutiny at their summer camp among the Ubii. Aroused by new recruits from the city of Rome, the men attacked the centurions by surprise, beating many to death and throwing the bodies into the Rhine. The main command was isolated and the men ran the camp. Hearing of the mutiny, Germanicus left his tax-collecting duties in Gaul and hastened to the camp with a small retinue. He was just as popular as his father had been.

After mingling with the men and hearing their complaints, Germanicus persuaded them into formation, had the standards brought out and began a dialogue with them. At one point they bared their backs to show Germanicus the scars from lashing. At another Germanicus drew his sword and offered to commit suicide, but was restrained. Another soldier offered him a sharper sword. He withdrew to his tent.

There he received word that the mutiny was about to become a state issue. Mutinous envoys were being sent to Cologne, there were plans to burn the city and sack Gaul. The enemy on the other side of the border was watching with interest, waiting to intervene. In realization of the common danger the men settled for immunity, double pay (which Germanicus gladly paid from his own funds on the spot) and an enlistment of sixteen years. I Germanica and the XX Valeria Victrix retired to Cologne, while Germanicus went to seek senatorial confirmation and approval by Tiberius.

Germanicus returned to Cologne with envoys from the Senate, arriving at night, which was misinterpreted by the men as signifying the agreement was off. They dragged Germanicus from his bed, but the matter was clarified next day. Upset, Germanicus tried to send his pregnant wife and young son off to safety, but the soldiers heard them weeping and came out to detain them. Aroused, Germanicus delivered one of the great orations in history, upholding the tradition of his family's ability in that area, saying, for example:

"For what have you not dared, what have you not profaned during these days? What name shall I give to this gathering? Am I to call you soldiers. when you have trampled under foot the Authority of the Senate. " (Annales 1.46 from the Perseus site)

Moved and stung to the quick, the soldiers settled the mutiny on the spot by general court martial conducted by the tribunes. The leaders were put in chains and brought to the dais, where they went before the troops one by one. The soldiers voted for guilt or innocence by voice. The guilty were thrown off the dais to be executed by the men. [1] Each centurion then passed before the tribunal to be approved or disapproved. The approved kept their rank. The disapproved were discharged from the service. The terms of the agreement were faithfully kept. Germanicus returned to Rome.

I Germanica went back to duty, but not exactly with honor. It remained in Germania Inferior fighting in all the major campaigns along the Rhine and the Danube.

Final disgrace and disbandment Edit

Finally the death of Nero and the year 69, the Year of the Four Emperors. arrived. The Senatus populusque Romanus could not decide on a suitable replacement for Nero. The various candidates fought for the distinction, introducing confusion on the Rhine frontier. The result was a general breakaway of the Celtic and Germanic tribes along the Rhine. They were categorically known as the Belgae at that time. Historians styled it the Batavian rebellion of 70.

In essence the tribes along the Rhine believed that the Roman empire was finished and decided to set up a rump state in Gaul ruled from Triers by Gaius Julius Civilis. They managed to convince two legions and most of Gaul to swear allegiance to it. I Germanica was one of them. Units that tried to hold out against changing allegiance were attacked.

The victor of that infamous year of contention was Emperor Vespasian. He sent eight legions under Quintus Petillius Cerialis to the Rhine to clarify matters. On his approach, the two renegade legions repented and sought refuge in the future Alsace-Lorraine region on the left bank of the Rhine. Gaul repudiated the government at Triers, which begged finally for terms.

Legio I did not return to station. After the pacification was complete, Vespasian himself came to the Rhine and disbanded I Germanica. Remnants of the legion were possibly merged with Legio VII Gemina. [ citation needed ]

Notes Edit See also Edit References Edit
  • Keppie, Lawrence (1994). The Making of the Roman Army . New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 1-56619-359-1.  
  • Parker, H. M. D. (1993). The Roman Legions . New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-88029-854-5.  
External links Edit

Source:

military.wikia.com

Mespilus germanica (Medlar) - Practical Plants

Practical Plants Mespilus germanica Shelter Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in late autumn in a cold frame [8]. The seed has a very hard and impermeable seedcoat and will not usually germinate until it has gone through two winters. Commercially, such seeds are soaked for a short while in sulphuric acid to break down the seed coat and allow the seed to take up moisture, this is a very delicate procedure and difficult to do on a small scale. A home gardener could try soaking the seed for 24 hours in warm water then cold stratifying it for 2 - 3 months at 1 - 5°c before sowing it. Alternatively, if you can harvest the seed green (as soon as it is mature but before the seed coat has dried and hardened), then sow it immediately in a cold frame you might reduce the time needed for it to germinate. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of mature wood, November in a cold frame. Poor percentage. Layering in autumn or early spring. Takes 18 months [8].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Mespilus germanica. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.

Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils [9]. preferring one that is moist and well-drained [10] [11] [6]. Prefers a sunny position [10] [3] and a fertile soil [12]. Occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties [13] [6].

Crops Problems, pests & diseases Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Mespilus germanica. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Mespilus germanica.

Source:

practicalplants.org

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