Tadeáš Polanský was since 1734 lecturing at a Gymnasium (school) in Uherské Hradiště. Later he became professor of dogmatics at University of Olomouc. Apart from theology, he was, together with Polanský Jan Nepomuk (1723 – 1776), active in the field of physics, researching lightning and thunder, colors, phases of Venus, primary and secondary rainbow. and other.  In years 1760 – 1761, Polanský became dean of the University's Faculty of Theology .
He was lecturing in Olomouc at the time when Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor stepped up his fight for absolute power, effectively restricting the Jesuit monopoly in education. At the University of Olomouc, the struggle was taking place particularly between the conservative Jesuits and a proponent of enlightenment ideas Josef Vratislav Monse .
Polanský's book Manudictio sacerdotis ad com-modissime subeundum examen pro approbatione et jurisdictione. printed in 1762, was banned in 1769. Later, in February 1771, a directive explicitly ordered Ausrottung (extermination) of the book, while another one from May 1771 introduced heavy fines for mere possession of the book. 
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Conimbricenses or Collegium Conimbricenses is the name by which Jesuits of the University of Coimbra in Coimbra. Portugal were known. The Conimbricenses were Jesuits who, from the end of 16th century took over the intellectual leadership of the Roman Catholic world from the Dominicans. Among those Jesuits were Luis de Molina (1535–1600) and Francisco Suárez (1548–1617). In their stricter sense the Coimbra Commentaries. also known simply as Conimbricenses, are mainly a group of eleven books on Aristotle (of which only eight are really commentaries). On the register of the college at various times appeared the names of two hundred Jesuits including professors and students. Toward the end of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth, voluminous commentaries on the philosophical writings of Aristotle went forth from the university. These commentaries were dictations to the students by the professors and as such were not intended for publication. Still they were actually published, but fraudulently. In order to interpret and disown incorrect and unauthorized editions, Father Claudius Acquaviva, the General of the Society of Jesus, assigned Father Peter Fonseca, the provincial of the Portuguese province, the task of supervising the revision of these commentaries for publication. Father Fonseca was widely known as the Aristotle of Portugal. The different treatises appeared in the following order:
To this last treatise was prefixed a forward disowning any connection whatever with the work published at Frankfurt in 1604 and claiming to be the "Commentarii Conimbricenses". The portion of the preface referred to is substantially the following: "Before we could finish the task entrusted to us of editing our Logic, to which we were bound by many promises, certain German publishers fraudulently brought out a work professing to be from us, abounding in errors and inaccuracies which were really their own. They also substituted for our commentaries certain glosses gotten furtively. It is true these writings thirty years previously were the work of one of our professors not indeed intended for publication. They were the fruit of his zeal and he never dreamed they would appear in print."
The last treatise was prepared for printing by Father Sebastian Couto. The entire eight parts formed five quarto volumes, enjoyed a wide circulation, and appeared in many editions, the best known being those of Lyon. Lisbon. and Cologne. The Commentaries are in flowing Latin and are supplemented by reliable explanations of the text and exhaustive discussion of the system of Aristotle. Karl Werner said that the Jesuits of Coimbra gave the world a masterpiece, whose equal is yet to be seen and which has received the admiration it deserves. Father de Backer gives an exact list of all the editions. The later ones have added the Greek text of Aristotle.See also Original Text
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She had selected "Pie Jesu " from Faure's Requiem, vocally, a very difficult piece.
Heitmuller, Im Namen Jesu (1903).
- The most comprehensive of modern booksdealing with the period is Emil Scharer, Geschichte des Judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi (3 vols. Leipzig, 1901 foil.).
Strauss, the author of the Leben Jesu. and Bruno Bauer, who like Feuerbach himself had passed over from Hegelianism to a form of naturalism.
2 The existence of the Mandaeans has been known since the middle 'of the 17th century, when the first Christian missionaries, Ignatius a Jesu and Angelus a Sancto, began to labour among them at Basra; further information was gathered at a somewhat later date by Pietro della Valle' and Jean de Thevenot 5 (1633-1667), and in the following century by Engelbrecht Kaempfer (1651-1716), Jean Chardin (1643-1713) and Carsten Niebuhr.
His first tract, De Societatis Jesu Origine, led to his being erroneously presumed a Jesuit (P. Alegambe, Biblioth.
Besides this great work he published in 1832 his Geschichte der Pflanzung and Leitung der christlichen Kirche, and in 1837 his Das Leben Jesu Christi, in seinem geschichtlichen Zusammenhang and seiner geschichtlichen Entwickelung, called forth by the famous Life of David Strauss.
Next to the Acta quaedam comes in value Polanco's Vita Ignatii Loiolae, which is published in the Monumenta historica Societatis Jesu now in progress.
Ignatio (Rome, 1650, 1659) Genelli wrote Das Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck, 1848); Nicolas Orlandinus gives a life in the first volume of the Historiae Societatis Jesu (Rome, 1615).
His other works include Das Leben Jesu (3 vols. 1844-1847), Das apostolische Zeitalter (2 vols. 1853-1854), Grundriss der theologischen Enzyklopadie (1877), Grundriss der christlichen Ethik (1878), and Grundriss der Bibelkunde (1881).
Besides the works already noticed, he wrote De arte critica (1597); De Antichristo (1605); Pro auctoritate ecclesiae in decidendis fidei controversiis libellus; Scaliger hypololymaeus (1607), a virulent attack on Scaliger; and latterly the anti-jesuitical works, Flagellum Jesuiticum (1632); Mysteria patrum jesuitorum (1633); and Arcana societatis Jesu (1635).
It has been suggested that Jesus followed the pharisaic practice, and ate the Passover meal (the Last Supper) on Thursday evening, which would account for the discrepancies in the gospel narratives (see Chwolson, Das letzte Passahmal Jesu. 2nd ed. St Petersburg, 1904).
Emerson's transcendentalism greatly influenced him, and Strauss's Leben Jesu left its mark upon his thought.
Meyer, entitled Jesus . Jesu Jiinger and das Evangelium im Talmud and verwandten jiidischen Schriften, to which also a good bibliography of the subject is prefixed.
Trans. 1883), Das Leben Jesu (1882, 4th ed. 1902; Eng.
(See Wendt, Lehre Jesu. 12-21; Charles, Eschatology, 325 sqq.; H.
In 608 Magian influence was so strong in Persia that the Christians were persecuted and the office of catholicus was vacant for 20 years, being filled again by Jesu-Jabus. during whose patriarchate the Mahommedan invasion overran Persia.
Jesu. what a whale!
the old tunes in Knox's ‘Psalter.’ 4. ‘Music and Education,’ London, 1848. A periodical started by him under the title of ‘Mainzer's Musical Times’ was the basis of the present ‘Musical Times.’ His musical compositions, if we except a long-metre hymn-tune bearing his name but not definitely ascertained to be by him, are now forgotten; but his ‘choruses,’ simple yet effective, show that he understood how to wield large masses of voice.
[A short sketch of his life (25 pp.), translated from the French of Aristide Guilbert, was published in 1844; see also Novello's Short History of Cheap Music, pp. 30, 47; Grove's Dictionary of Music, ii. 198; Brown's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, p. 410; Love's Scottish Church Music, Curwen's Teacher's Manual, p. 367.]
MAIR. JOHN (1469–1550), scholar. [See Major, John .]
MAIRE. CHRISTOPHER (1697–1767), jesuit, son of Christopher Maire, esq. of Hartbushes, co. Durham, by Frances Ingleby of Lawkland, Yorkshire, was born on 6 March 1696–7, and studied humanities in the college of the English jesuits at St. Omer. He entered the Society of Jesus 7 Sept. 1715, and was professed of the four vows 2 Feb. 1733. After a course of teaching at St. Omer, and professing philosophy and theology at Liège, he was declared rector of the English College at Rome in the autumn of 1744, and he held that office until 1750. He returned to St. Omer in March 1757; and died at Ghent on 22 Feb. 1767.
Alban Butler calls him ‘an able mathematician,’ in allusion to measurements which he made of St. Paul's Cathedral, London (Lives of the Saints. 18 Nov. note). Pope Benedict XIV entrusted to him and Father Boscovich the task of making a correct map of the State of the Church.
His works are: 1. ‘Tractatus Theologicus de Sanctissima Trinitate,’ 1737, 12mo, pp. 152, manuscript in the library of the University of Liège. 2. ‘Observationes Cometæ ineunte anno mdccxliv in Collegio Anglicano Romæ habitæ, et cum theoria Newtoniana comparatæ,’ Rome, 1744, 4to. A translation into Italian also appeared. 3. ‘Observationes Astronomicæ Leodii, Audomarapoli, et Romæ habitæ ab anno 1727 ad 1743:’ in C. A. Giuliani's ‘Memorie sopra la Fisica e Istoria Naturale di diversi Valentuomini,’ Lucca, 1744, vol. ii. (see Journal des Savants. 1746, p. 224). 4. ‘Continuatio Observationum Astronomicarum P. C. Maire … quas Romæ habuit annis 1743 et 1744:’ in Giuliani's ‘Memorie,’ vol. iii. 5. ‘Table of Longitudes and Latitudes for the principal Towns of the World:’ in ‘Scientia Eclipsium,’ Rome, 1747. 6. ‘Defectus Solis observatus die 25 Julii in Collegio Anglicano:’ in ‘Mém. de Trev.’ September 1748, p. 2087. 7. ‘Observatio partialis Eclipsis Lunæ die 25 Decembris 1749 in Collegio Anglicano:’ in Zaccaria's ‘Storia Letteraria d'Italia,’ xi. 375–7, and in the ‘Giornale di Roma,’ 1749, art. 42. 8. ‘Observations made at Rome of the Eclipse of the Moon, Dec. 23, 1749, and of that of the Sun, Jan. 8, 1750:’ in ‘Philosophical Transactions,’ x. 4 (1750). 9. ‘Osservazioni dell' ultimo passagio di Mercurio fatte in Roma,’ 1753: in the ‘Giornali de' Letterati’ (see Zaccaria. Storia Letteraria. viii. 181). 10. ‘De litteraria Expeditione per Pontificiam Ditionem ad dimetiendos duos Meridiani Gradus et corrigendam Mappam geographicam, jussu et auspiciis Benedicti XIV Pont. Max. suscepta a Patribus Societatis Jesu Christophoro Maire et Rogerio Josepho Boscovich,’ Rome, 1755, 4to. A French translation, with notes by Hugon, appeared at Paris in 1770, 4to. 11. ‘Nuova Carta Geographica dello Stato Ecclesiastico,’ fol. (Catal. de Cotte. No. 1559). 12. Three letters in Stanislaus Wydra's ‘Vita Josephi Stepling,’ Prague, 1779, 8vo, pp. 106–12.
[Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 137; Foley's Records, v. 653, vii. 479; De Backer's Bibl. de la Compagnie de Jésus, ii. 1007; Archbishop Ullathorne's Autobiog. pp. 132–7; Watt's Bibl. Brit.]
MAIRE. WILLIAM (d. 1769), Roman catholic prelate, was the fifth son of Thomas Maire, esq. of Hardwick, co. Durham, and Lartington, Yorkshire, by his wife, Mary Fermor of Tusmore, Oxfordshire. He arrived at the English College, Douay, 16 Aug. 1719, was ordained priest at Tournay in 1730, and became professor at Douay, first of rhetoric and afterwards of philosophy. From 1742 to 1767 he served the Durham mission. In 1767 he was appointed coadjutor to Francis Petre, vicar-apostolic of the northern district of England, and was consecrated bishop of Cinna, in partibus infidelium. He died at Lartington on 25 July 1769, and was buried in the family vault in the parish church of Ronaldkirk. He published a translation of Gobinet's ‘Instruction of Youth in Christian Piety.’
[Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 259, 261; Foley's Records, v. 654; Surtees's Durham, i. 53.]
MAITLAND. CHARLES, third Earl of Lauderdale (d. 1691), was younger brother of John, duke of Lauderdale [q. v.], and third son of John, first earl of Lauderdale, by Isabel Seton, daughter of Alexander, earl of Dunfermline, lord high chancellor of
the monastery and environment (photo © 2010 Clement Kuehn)
The following list is an updated and modified version of that created by M. Geerard and revised by J. Noret, Clavis Patrum Graecorum, vol. 3, second edition (Turnhout 2003), 7745-81. For other lists of genuine and spurious works and editions, see:
K.-H. Uthemann, Anastasios Sinaites: Byzantinisches Christentum in den ersten Jahrzehnten unter arabischer Herrschaft, vol. 2 (Berlin 2015), 774-810; see also
K.-H. Uthemann, “Anastasius the Sinaite” in A. Di Berardino (ed.), Patrology: The Eastern Fathers from the Council of Chalcedon (451) to John of Damascus (✝ 750) (Cambridge 2006), 315-6; updated by C. Kuehn, review of Patrology: The Eastern Fathers. in BZ 101/2 (2008), 813-5; C. Kuehn and J. Baggarly, S.J. (eds. and trans.), Anastasius of Sinai: Hexaemeron (OCA 278) (Rome 2007), lxviii-lxxii; M. Richard and J. Munitiz, S.J. (eds.), Anastasii Sinaitae Quaestiones et responsiones (CCSG 59) (Turnhout 2006), viii-ix. For an original study of the works attributed to Anastasios of Sinai, see S. Sakkos, Περὶ Ἀναστασίων Σιναϊτῶν (Thessaloniki 1964). J.-P. Migne collected most of the works attributed to Anastasios of Sinai in PG 89. See esp. columns 11-26, 35-1288, and 1389-1397. See also PG 44 columns 1328-1345 and PG 55 columns 543-55.
1. Attributed to Anastasios of Sinai and considered genuine
Migne, J.-P. general editor. S. P. N. Anastasii, cognomento Sinaïtae, Patriarchae Antiocheni, Opera omnia, quae supersunt. Volume 89 in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior. (PG 89). Columns 1-1288, 1389-1397. Paris, 1865. Reprinted from 1860 edition. See also PG 44 columns 1328-1345; and PG 55 columns 543-55.
Gretser, Jacob. Jacobi Gretseri Societatis Jesu theologi Opera omnia. Volume 14. Ratisbonae, 1734.
Uthemann, Karl-Heinz, ed. Anastasii Sinaïtae: Viae dux. CCSG 8. Turnhout 1981.
Gretser, Jakob, ed. and trans. Anastasii Sinaitae, Patriarchae Antiocheni ὉΔΗΓΟΣ , seu, Dux viæ, aduersus Acephalos. Ingolstadii, 1606. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 36-310. Paris, 1865.
Qaestiones et responsiones (CPG 7746)
Munitiz, Joseph, S.J. trans. Anastasios of Sinai: Questions and Answers (Corpus Christianorum in Translation 7). Turnhout, 2011.
Richard, Marcel, and Joseph Munitiz . s.j. eds. Anastasii Sinaïtae: Quaestiones et responsiones. CCSG 59. Turnhout, 2006.
Sieswerda, Douwe, Pseudo-Anastasius en Anastasius Sinaïta: Een vergelijking. De Pseudo-Anastasiaanse Quaestiones et responsiones in de ΣΩΤΗΡΙΟΣ. Prolegomena, tekst en commentaar. Ph.D. dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2004.
Gretser, Jakob, ed. and trans. Sancti Anastasii Sinaitae, Patriarchae Antiocheni Quaestiones et responsiones de variis argumentis CLIV. Ingolstadii, 1617. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 312-824. Paris, 1865.
Homilia i, ii, iii de creatione hominis (CPG 7747-9)
Capita vi contra Monothelitas (CPG 7756)
Contra Monophysitas (CPG 7771)
Uthemann, Karl-Heinz, ed. Anastasii Sinaïtae: Sermones duo in constitutionem hominis secundum imaginem Dei necnon opuscula adversus monotheletas. CCSG 12. Turnhout, 1985.
Mai, A. ed. Anastasii Patriarchae Antiocheni e sermone: Secundum imaginem, fragmentum. In Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, volume 9, pages 619-21. Rome, 1833.Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1143-50 (= volume 44, columns 1328-45). Paris, 1865.
Mai, A. ed. Relationes impurarum impiarumque Arii sententiarum. In Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, volume 7, pages 202-6. Rome, 1833.Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1179-90. Paris, 1865.
Bandini, Angelo Maria, ed. S. Ioannis Chrysostomi In Ninivitarum poenitentiam homilia. Anastasii Sinaitae Sermo III. De hominis creatione. Florence, 1763. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1151-80. Paris, 1865.
Tarinus, Joannes [Tarin, Jean], ed. and trans. De homine ad imaginem Dei condito. In Origenis Philocalia, de obscuris s. Scripturae locis, a Basilio magno & Gregorio theologo ex variis Origenis comm. excerpta. Paris, 1618; reprinted 1624.
Du Duc, Fronton. Ad imaginem Dei et ad similitudinem (CPG 3218). In D. Gregorii Nysseni Opuscula nonnulla, nunc primum in lucem edita. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 44, columns 1328-45 (= volume 89, columns 1151-80). Paris, 1865.
Franciscus Combefis, ed.S. Anastasii Sinaïtae Orato de Sacra Synaxi. In Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 825-49. Paris, 1865.
Tatius, Achilles, trans. Beati Anastasii. Oratio de sacra synaxi. Rome, 1579.
Homilia in sextum Psalmum (CPG 7751)
Canisius, Henricus, and Franciscus Combefis, eds.S. Anastasii Sinaïtae Oratio in Sextum Psalmum. In Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1077-1116 (= volume 55, columns 543-550, which is incomplete). Paris, 1865.
Sermo in defunctos (CPG 7752, BHG 2103u)
Matthaei, F. C. ed. Sancti Patris Nostri Anastasii Sinaïtae Sermo in defunctos perutilis. In Glossaria Graeca minora et alia anecdota Graeca, volume 1, pages 51-58. Moscow, 1774. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1192-1201. Paris, 1865.
Sermo de transfiguratione (CPG 7753, BHG 1999)
Guillou, A. ed. “Le monastère de la Théotokos au Sinaï … Homélie inédite d’Anastase le Sinaïte sur la Transfiguration.” Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire 67 (1955): 216-258.
Homilia in passionem Iesu Christ (CPG 7754, BHGn 416c)
Unedited. German translation by L. Cheikho, in Theologische praktische Quartalschrift 65 (1912): 780-95.
Homilia in novam dominicam et in Thomam apostolum (CPG 7755 = 5058)
Kotter, B. ed. Die Schriften des Iohannes von Damaskos III. Contra imaginum calumniatores orationes tres. PTS 17, page 197. Berlin, 1975.
Capita xvi contra Monophysitas (CPG 7757)
Sakkos, Stergios, ed. Ἀναστασίου Β΄ Ἀντιοχείας ἀνέκδοτα ἔργα. Pages 5-8. Thessaoniki, 1976.
Narrationes (CPG 7758; see ibidem for BHG numbers)
Binggeli, André, ed. and trans. Anastase le Sinaïte: Récits sur le Sinaï et Récits utiles à l’âme. Édition, traduction, commentaire. 2 volumes. Ph.D. dissertation, Sorbonne, 2001.
Halkin, François, ed. In Analecta Bollandiana 63 (1945): 62-64.
Nau, F. ed. “Histoires des solitaires égyptiens, MS. Coislin 126.” Revue de l’Orient Chrétien 12-14, 17-18 (1907-9, 1912-13).
————————. ed. “Le texte grec des récits utiles à l’âme d’Anastase (le Sinaïte).” Oriens Christianus 3 (1903): 56-75, 78-79.
————————. ed.”Le texte grec des récits du moine Anastase sur les saints pères du Sinaï.” Oriens Christianus 2 (1902): 58-89.
————————. trans. “Les récits inédits du moine Anastase: contribution à l’histoire du Sinaï au commencement du VIIe siècle.” Revue de l’Institut Catholique de Paris 1-2 (1902):1-70.
In hexaemeron libri xii (CPG 7770)
Zaganas, Dimitrios. "The Authenticity of Anastasius Sinaita's Hexaemeron ( CPG 7770). Revue des Études Byzantines 73 (2015): 189-201.
Kuehn, Clement. “Anastasius of Sinai: Biblical Scholar.” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 103.1 (2010): 55-81.
Kuehn, Clement, and John Baggarly, S.J. eds. and trans. Anastasius of Sinai: Hexaemeron. Orientalia Christiana Analecta 278. Rome, 2007.
Allix, Pierre, ed. and André Dacier, trans. S. Anastasii Sinaitæ Anagogicarum contemplationum in Hexaemeron liber XII. hactenus desideratus. London, 1682. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1051-78. Paris, 1865.
Hervet, Gentian, trans. Anastasii Sinaïtae, monachi et presbyteri: In spiritualem anagogen sex dierum creationis. Paris, 1579. Reprinted with changes in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 851-1052. Paris, 1865.
Disputatio adversus Iudaeos (CPG 7772)
Mai, A. ed. In Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, volume 7, page 207. Rome, 1833. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1203-82. Paris, 1865.
2. Attributed to Anastasius of Sinai, but of uncertain origin
Sermo de tribus quadragesimis (CPG 7773)
Cotelier, J. B. ed. In Ecclesiae Graecae Monumenta, volume 3, page 425. Paris, 1686. Reprinted in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca Prior, edited by J.-P. Migne, volume 89, columns 1389-97. Paris, 1865.
De haeresibus (CPG 7774)
Uthemann, Karl-Heinz, ed. “Die dem Anastasios Sinaites zugeschriebene Synopsis de haeresibus et synodis. Einführung und Edition.” Annuarium Historiae Concilionum 14 (1982): 58-94.
Pitra, Jean-Baptiste, ed. In Iuris Ecclesiastici Graecorum Historia et Monumenta, volume 2, pages 257-71. Rome, 1868.
Concisa et perspicua fidei nostrae notitia (CPG 7775)
De liturgiis in quadragesimo die pro defunctis (CPG 7776)
Doctrina de temporibus (CPG 7777)
Pitra, Jean-Baptiste, ed. In Iuris Ecclesiastici Graecorum Historia et Monumenta, volume 2, pages 271-74, 277-80. Rome, 1868.
Capita paenitentialia (CPG 7778)
Precatio (CPG 7779)
Sakkos, Stergios, ed. Ἀναστασίου Β΄ Ἀντιοχείας ἀνέκδοτα ἔργα. Pages 9-12. Thessaoniki, 1976.
Doctrina Patrum (CPG 7781)
Diekamp, F. ed. Doctrina Patrum de Incarnatione Verbi. Muenster i. W. 1907.
Migne, J.-P. general editor. Michaelis Glycae, Opera omnia. In Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca, volume 158 (PG 158), columns 1-958. Paris, 1866.
Bekker, Immanuel, ed. Michaelis Glycae: Annales. Bonn, 1836.
Westerink, L. G. ed. Michael Psellus: De omnifaria doctrina. Utrecht, 1948.
Monita Secreta Societatis Jesu or secret instructions for the Jesuitic order, is a work which has been the cause of much dispute, both as to its authenticity and as to the veracity of its contents. In Europe the book has attracted some attention, and, in consequence, some controversy; but in America it has been the subject of a very animated discussion, and we are therefore warranted in giving a detailed history of the book, and the position of the acknowledged authorities in such difficulties.
I.History of its Origin, Editions, etc. — The Monita was first printed in Latin, from the Spanish, at Cracow, the capital of Poland, with this title: Monita Privata Societatis Jesu, Notobirge, Anno 1612, by an unknown editor, with various "Testimonies of several Italian and Spanish Jesuits" confirmatory of the truth of the Monita. The "Constitutions of the Society," though printed as early as 1558, had never been published. Everything connected with the rules of the order had been carefully concealed from the public eye. The Monita, therefore, was rapidly bought and everywhere circulated, not only in Poland; but in Germany, Italy, and France. It gratified an intense curiosity, and was generally recognized at once as a faithful portraiture of Jesuitism. Claude Acquaviva, "the ablest and most profound politician of his time," and "the beau ideal of Jesuitism," was the general of the order, exercising over it a complete control. The Monita was regarded then, as it has been since by Van Mastricht and many other judicious scholars, as the product of his pen. The book certainly does not misrepresent him. The tactics are his, and may well have derived their inspiration from his wily brain. It does not appear that he ever denied them. He took no steps to prove the publication a forgery. Down to the day of his death (January 31, 1615), nearly three years, the book passed unmolested, though the Jesuits were all-powerful in Poland. The circulation of the Monita finally occasioned the appointment of a commission, July 11, 1615, by Peter Tylick, bishop of Cracow. His confessor was a Jesuit, as was the king's. Tylick admitted that "nothing is certainly known of its author; but," he affirmed, "it is reported, and the presumption is, that it was edited by the venerable Jerome Zaorowski, pastor of Gozdziec." The commission were instructed October 7th to inquire whether "at any time or place Zaorowski had been heard to speak approvingly of such a famous libel, or to affirm that the contents were true, or to say anything of the kind from which it can be gathered that he is the author, or, at least, an accomplice in the writing of this libel." The papal nuncio, Diotallenius, a few weeks after (November 14), added his sanction to the investigation. Yet the author was not found, and there remained no other step for the Papists than the condemnation of the book to prevent its circulation. It was therefore put on the "Index" May 10, 1616, and a professor of Ingolstadt, the learned Gretser, commissioned to prepare a refutation of the Monita's disclosures. This refutation, entitled Libri Tres Apologetici contra Famosum Libellum, was published August 1, 1617, and a second decree was issued by the "Index" in 1621 to make sure of suppressing the circulation of the Monita.
Notwithstanding these efforts on the part of the Jesuits to disprove the authenticity of the work, their opponents continued to assert it genuine. Thus e.g. in 1633 Caspar Schoppe (Scioppius), a German scholar, himself a Roman Catholic, but a genuine hater of the Jesuits, published his Anatomia Societatis Jesu, in which, among other things, he presents a critique on a book that had come into his hands, which he calls "Instructio Secreta pro Superioribus Societatis Jesu." His analysis of the book proves it to have been the same, with slight differences, as the Monifa Privata. But his copy could not have been of the 1612 edition, for he attributes the discovery of the work to the plundering of the Jesuit college at Paderborn, in Westphalia, by Christian, duke of Brunswick. That was in February 1622, ten years later. If his copy had been of the Cracow edition, he could not have made so gross a mistake. This, then, was another source, independent of the first, from which the book was derived. It was credibly reported that another copy had been found at the capture of Prague in 1631, only two years before. The Jesuit Lawrence Forer thereupon pointed out the apparent anachronism in his Anatomia Anatomice, but he failed to convince Schoppe, nor could he shake the popular belief. This position now seems reasonable indeed for there is in the British Museum Library a volume printed at Venice in 1596, and containing, at the end of the book, several manuscript leaves on which the whole of the Monita Secreta is inscribed, the writing being evidently of ancient date. The remote date would rather lead to the conclusion that this work came from some convent, probably Jesuitical, in which the Monita had been introduced for service. The book had now attracted the attention of people everywhere; not only all over the Continent, but even in England the Monita was sought after, and so great was the demand that an edition appeared in England in Oliver's time (1658), On the Continent several editions were sent forth. A French version, entitled Secreta Monita, ou Advis Secrets de la Societe de Jesus, was published in 1661 at Paderborn, under the eaves of the Jesuit college. A second edition of Schoppe's Anatomia appeared in 1668. To aggravate the difficulty, the next year Henry Compton, canon of Christ Church, Oxford, and afterwards bishop successively of Oxford and London, published, in 9 sheets 4to, The Jesuits' Intrigues, with the Private Instructions of that Society to their Emnissaries.
The latter had been "lately found in MS. in a Jesuit's closet after his death, and sent, in a letter, from a gentleman at Paris to his friend in London." This, too, was the Monita Secreta, entirely independent of the others.
At Strasburg, in 1713, Henri de St. Ignace, under the pseudonym of "Liberius Candidus," a Flemish divine of the Carmelite order, published his Tuba Magra, addressed to the pope and all potentates, on the "necessity of reforming the Society of Jesus." In the appendix the Monita Secreta is reproduced in full. In proof of its authenticity, he gives these three reasons: "1. Common fame. 2. The character of the document wholly Jesuitical. 3. Its exact conformity with their practices. Besides, its having been found in the Jesuit colleges." The Jesuit, Alphonso Huylenbrock, published his "Vindications" of the society in the following year. De Ignace could not be shaken from his belief in the authenticity of the book, and issued a second edition in 1714, in which he says that "nothing, or next to nothing, is contained therein that the Jesuits have not reduced to practice." A third edition of the Tuba Magna was published in 1717, and a fourth in 1760. In 1717 the Monita was published by John Schipper, at Amsterdam, from a copy purchased at Antwerp, with the significant title of Machiavelli Muus Jesuiticus. This was followed; in 1723, by an edition in Latin and English, published at London by John Walthoe, Jui. and dedicated to Sir Robert Walpole. A second edition was issued in 1749. Another edition in French (probably a reprint of the Paderborn edition of 1661) was issued at Cologne in 1727.
After the suppression of the. order in 1773, several MSS. of the work were found in Jesuitic haunts, particularly in their colleges. A MS. was even found in Rome which was printed in 1782 under the title Monita Secreta Patrum Societatis Jesu, "nunc primum typis expressa." Evidently its editor had never heard of a published copy of the Monita. It contains numerous errors, such as are very likely to creep into a MS. The New York Union Theological Seminary possesses a copy of this printed edition. The early restoration of the order to power, in 1814, prevented the unearthing of copies direct from Jesuitichands.
II.Defenders of its Authenticity; recent Editors, etc. As far back as the 17th century, after the authenticity of the Monita had been a. matter of dispute for more than a hundred years, we find that astute Lutheran theologian Dr. Johann Gerhard, whose familiarity with polemic divinity was perfectly marvellous, make mention of Schoppe's Anatomia in his great work Confessio Catholica (Frankfort and Leipsic, 1679), and refer to the Monita Secreta as a work of undoubted authenticity. This opinion has been generally quoted and endorsed by ecclesiastical historians, especially of the Protestant Church, with only one exception (Gieseler, Kirchengesch. volume 3, part 2, page 656 sq.). In 1831, after "careful investigation," an edition was published at Princeton, N.J. by the learned Dr. W.C. Brownlee, under the auspices of the "American Protestant Society," containing the original, an English translation based upon that of Walthoe (1723), and a "Historical Sketch." Dr. Hodge, in reviewing the case in the Biblical Repository (4:138), takes occasion to say that the authenticity of the work has never been disproved. "Attempts," he says, "have been made to cry down this work as a forgery. We cannot imagine that these doubts can be seriously entertained by those who peruse the historical essay which is prefixed to it. Facts and authorities are there adduced which we cannot help thinking ought to satisfy every mind, not only of the authenticity of the work, but also of the entire justice of the representations which it gives of the society whose official instructions it professes to exhibit." In 1843, shortly after an edition of the Monita had been issued by Seeley, Mr. Edward Dalton, the secretary of the "Protestant Association of Great Britain," took occasion thus to comment on it in his The Jesuits; their Principles and Acts: "If we weigh well the evidence which has been handed down to us by historians; if we peruse the writings of the Jesuits themselves, and maturely consider the doctrines therein promulgated, and their practical tendency, we can scarcely fail to be convinced of the authenticity of the Secreta Monita." In 1844 an edition was again published in the United States, this time under the auspices of the "American and Foreign Christian Union." It then became the subject of considerable agitation, several Protestant writers of note taking the ground that the work had not a real basis in Jesuitism, and had been proved spurious. In consequence, the learned professor Henry M. Baird, of the New York University, contributed the following additional testimony: "In proof of the authenticity of the 'Secret Instructions,' we have the testimony of a gentleman who as a historical investigator has scarcely a peer — certainly no superior. I refer to M. Louis Prosper Gachard, the 'archivistegeneral' of the kingdom of Belgium, to whose rare sagacity, profound erudition, and indefatigable industry our own distinguished historians, Prescott and Motley, pay such frequent and deserved compliments; the. latter, in the preface to his Dutch Republic, remarking: 'It is unnecessary to add that all the publications of M. Gachard — particularly the invaluable correspondence of Philip II and of William the Silent, as well as the "Archives et Correspondance" of the Orange Nassau family, edited by the learned and distinguished Groen van Prinsterer — have been my constant guides through the tortuous labyrinth of Spanish and Netherland politics.' In M. Gachard's Analectes Belgiques, a volume from which Mr. Prescott draws much of the material of the first chapter of his Philip the Second, I find a short article devoted to 'The Secret Instructions of the Jesuits' (page 63). 'When the Monita Secreta Societatis Jesu were published, a few years since,' says M. Gachard, 'many persons disputed the authenticity of this book; others boldly maintained that it had been forged, with the design of injuring the society by ascribing to it principles which it did not possess. Here are facts that will dissipate all uncertainty in this respect: At the suppression of the order in the Low Countries in 1773, there were discovered in one of its houses, in the College of Ruremonde (everywhere else they had been carefully destroyed at the first tidings of the bull fulminated by Clement XIV), the most important and most secret-papers, such as the correspondence of the general with the provincial fathers, and the directions of which the latter alone could have had cognizance. Among these papers were the Monita Secreta. A translation of them was made, by order of the government, by the "substitut procureur-general" of Brabant, De Berg. It still exists in the archives of the kingdom, and I can vouch that it differs in nothing substantially (quant au fond) from that which has been rendered public.'"
In 1869 the Reverend Dr. Edwin F. Hatfield ably reviewed the case of the "Secret Instructions" in the New York Observer, and since that time but little has been advanced either pro or con. Prof. Schem, well known for his ecclesiastical learning, and himself educated at the Jesuitical college in Rome, but now a Protestant in theology, in the article JESUITS SEE JESUITS in this Cyclopaedia took ground against the authenticity of the Monita, and, as he is entitled to a hearing, we did not there dissent from his article. Our own judgment, however, is to accept the Moanita as a Jesuitical production, containing the instructions of the order. In the article "Jesuits" in the Encyclop. Britannica, Dr. Isaac Taylor, its author, states that thee Monita is "believed to be a spurious production," but he by no means anywhere indicates that he himself believed it spurious; on the contrary, it is more than likely that he held it to be genuine.
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