Monday, 17 October 2016
Aditya Bhargava makes it easy to learn how to use algorithms effectively in a fully- illustrated guide for "programmers and other curious people" which is a disarming take on a core computer science topic and shows readers how to apply common algorithms to practical problems faced in the day-to-day life of a programmer.
Date: December 2015
Category: Theory & Techniques
Bhargava starts with problems like sorting and searching and builds up skills in thinking algorithmically. Then it tackles more complex concerns such as data compression or artificial intelligence.
Whether writing business software, video games, mobile apps, or system utilities, readers will learn algorithmic techniques for solving problems that they thought were out of reach. By the end of this book, they will know some of the most widely applicable algorithms, as well as how and when to use them.
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Author: Mark Lutz
Audience: Experienced Python programmers
Reviewer: Alex Armstrong
A pocket reference that could fit in your pocket is a rare thing. Do you need it?
Authors: Mike Cantelon, Marc Harter, TJ Holowaychuk & Nathan Rajlich
Reviewer: Ian Elliot
Date: October 27, 2016 Source: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Summary: For the first time, scientists have revealed ancient gene mixing between chimpanzees and bonobos, humankind's closest relatives, showing parallels with Neanderthal mixing in human ancestry. The study showed that one percent of chimpanzee genomes are derived from bonobos. Share:
Bonobos (stock image).
Credit: © Uryadnikov Sergey / Fotolia
Bonobos (stock image).
Credit: © Uryadnikov Sergey / Fotolia
For the first time, scientists have revealed ancient gene mixing between chimpanzees and bonobos, humankind's closest relatives, showing parallels with Neanderthal mixing in human ancestry. Published in the journal Science. the study from scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their international collaborators showed that one percent of chimpanzee genomes are derived from bonobos.
The study also showed that genomics could help reveal the country of origin of individual chimpanzees, which has strong implications for chimpanzee conservation.
Chimpanzees and bonobos are great apes found only in tropical Africa. They are endangered species and are supposedly fully protected by law, yet many chimpanzees and bonobos are captured and held illegally.
To aid the conservation effort, researchers analysed the whole genome sequences of 75 chimpanzees and bonobos, from 10 African countries, and crucially included 40 new wild-born chimpanzees from known geographic locations. They discovered that there was a strong link between the genetic sequence of a chimpanzee, and their geographic origin.
Dr Chris Tyler Smith, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: "This is the largest analysis of chimpanzee genomes to date and shows that genetics can be used to locate quite precisely where in the wild a chimpanzee comes from. This can aid the release of illegally captured chimpanzees back into the right place in the wild and provide key evidence for action against the captors."
Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives of human beings. They diverged from a common ancestor between 1.5 and 2 million years ago and live in different areas of tropical Africa. Until now, it was thought that gene flow between the species would have been impossible, as they were physically separated by the Congo River.
The study confirmed a main separation between chimpanzees and bonobos approximately 1.5 million years ago, and the presence of four chimpanzee subspecies in different regions. However, the researchers also found there were two additional gene flow events between the chimpanzee and bonobo populations, indicating that at least some individuals found their way across the river.
Dr Yali Xue, from the Sanger Institute, said: "We found that central and eastern chimpanzees share significantly more genetic material with bonobos than the other chimpanzee subspecies. These chimpanzees have at least 1% of their genomes derived from bonobos. This shows that there wasn't a clean separation, but that the initial divergence was followed by occasional episodes of mixing between the species.
The study also included researchers from Spain, Copenhagen Zoo and the University of Cambridge and showed that there have been at least two phases of secondary contact, 200-550 thousand years ago and around 150 thousand years ago, mirroring what is believed to have happened during the last 100 thousand years of the evolution of humans.
Dr Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, leader of the study from the Institute of Biological Evolution (University Pompeu Fabra and CSIC), Barcelona, said: "This is the first study to reveal that ancient gene flow events happened amongst the living species closest to humans -- the bonobos and chimpanzees. It implies that successful breeding between close species might have been actually widespread in the ancestors of humans and living apes."
Materials provided by Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Genome sequencing reveals ancient interbreeding between chimpanzees and bonobos." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 October 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161027142434.htm>.
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (2016, October 27). Genome sequencing reveals ancient interbreeding between chimpanzees and bonobos. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 30, 2016 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161027142434.htm
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Genome sequencing reveals ancient interbreeding between chimpanzees and bonobos." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161027142434.htm (accessed October 30, 2016).Bonobos Skillfully Crack Nuts With Stone Hammers Like Chimpanzees
Oct. 3, 2016 A first of its kind study found that wild-born, rehabilitated bonobos (Pan paniscus) can be efficient nut-crackers with a skill level not that different from wild. read moreTool Use Is 'Innate' in Chimpanzees but Not Bonobos, Their Closest Evolutionary Relative
June 16, 2015 First evidence for a species difference in the innate predisposition for tool use in our closest evolutionary cousins could provide insight into how humans became the ultimate tool-using. read moreWhen It Comes to Food, Chimps Only Think of Themselves
Aug. 15, 2012 A sense of fairness is an important part of human behavior, yet a research team found it did not evolve from our closest living relatives. The study tested whether our great ape relatives, the. read moreBonobo Genome Completed: The Final Great Ape to Be Sequenced
June 13, 2012 Scientists have completed the genome of the bonobo -- the final great ape to be sequenced. Bonobos, which together with chimpanzees are the closest living relatives of humans, are known for their. read more
Category: Romance Novels
Format: ePUB & MOBi
Description: A mix of epub and mobi. calibre is your friend if you want to convert them. Book list -Bertie Wooster and Jeeves The Mating Season Carry On, Jeeves Brinkley Manor or Right Ho, Jeeves Much Obliged, Jeeves The Inimitable Jeeves Aunts Aren t Gentlemen Thank You Jeeves Ring For Jeeves or The Return of Jeeves Stiff Upper Lip, Jeeves Jeeves and the Feudal Spirit or Bertie Wooster Sees it Through My Man Jeeves The Code of The Woosters How Right You Are, Jeeves or Jeeves in the Offing Joy In the Morning -The Life of Writers School Days Four Short Tales Life At Home Crime and the Courts To Marry or Not to Marry Not George Washington America, I Like You or Over Seventy -Blandings Castle Galahad at Blandings Blandings Castle and Elsewhere Summer Lightning Full Moon Lord Emsworth and Others A Pelican at Blandings Pigs Have Wings Something Fresh or Something New Heavy Weather -Chimp Twist Money for Nothing Money in the Bank -Mike and Psmith Psmith, Journalist Leave It To Psmith Mike Psmith in the City -Monty Bodkin Luck of the Bodkins Pearls, Girls and Monty Bodkin -Mulliner Meet Mr. Mulliner Mulliner Nights Mr Mulliner Speaking -Ogden Ford The Little Nugget Piccadilly Jim -School and Sports The Head of Kay s The White Feather A Prefect s Uncle The Pothunters Tales of St Austin s The Gold Bat -Short stories Nothing Serious Eggs, Beans and Crumpets A Few Quick Ones The Clicking of Cuthbert The Politeness of Princes and Other Stories A Man of Means Death at the Excelsior and Other Stories Heart of a Goof The Man With Two Left Feet The Man Upstairs Young Men in Spats A Wodehouse Miscellany Plum Pie -Others The Girl in Blue A Damsel In Distress Bachelors Anonymous Summer Moonshine Jill the Reckless or The Little Warrior The Swoop! or How Clarence Saved England Doctor Sally Ice in the Bedroom Spring Fever Laughing Gas Mostly Sally or The Adventures of Sally French Leave The Prince and Betty Uneasy Money Big Money Hot Water Three Men and a Maid or The Girl on the Boat William Tell Told Again Indiscretions Of Archie The Coming of Bill or Their Mutual Child or The White Hope Intrusion of Jimmy or A Gentleman of Leisure Quick Service -Ukridge Ukridge Love Among The Chickens -Uncle Fred Service with a Smile Cocktail Time Uncle Fred in the Springtime Uncle Dynamite
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PYONGYANG, North Korea — Pyongyang’s newly opened zoo has a new star: Azalea, the smoking chimpanzee.
According to officials at the newly renovated zoo, which has become a favorite leisure spot in the North Korean capital since it re-opened in July, the 19-year-old female chimpanzee, whose name in Korean is “Dallae,” smokes about a pack a day. Dallae is short for azalea.
They insist, however, she doesn’t inhale.
Thrown a lighter by a zoo trainer, the chimpanzee lights her own cigarettes. If a lighter isn’t available, she can light up from a lit cigarette.
Though such a sight would draw outrage in many other locales, it seemed to delight visitors who roared with laughter on Wednesday as the chimpanzee, one of two at the zoo, sat puffing away as her trainer egged her on. The trainer also prompted her to touch her nose, bow thank you and do a simple dance.
The zoo is pulling in thousands of visitors a day with a slew of attractions ranging from such typical fare as elephants, giraffes, penguins and monkeys to a high-tech natural history museum with displays showing the origins of the solar system and the evolution of life on Earth.
Another of the most popular attractions that might come as a surprise to foreign visitors is the dog pavilion, which has everything from German shepherds to Shih Tzus. The zoo also has performances featuring other animals trained to do tricks, including a monkey that slam dunks basketballs, dogs trained to appear as though they can do addition or subtraction on an abacus and doves that fly around and land on a woman skating on an indoor stage.
Renovations for the new zoo began in 2014, as part of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un’s efforts to create more modern and impressive structures and leisure centers.
Most Popular Stories
Asteroid Blues ( アステロイドブルース. Asuteroido Burūsu ? ) is a story from volume 1 based on the events of Mega Man 3 . taking place between the stories "R Destruction Order" and "Metal Heart" from Mega Man Megamix.
Dr. Wily has finally been arrested. Some months later, an asteroid with mysterious ruins was located, and they contained eight powerful Energy Elements (also called Energy Crystals), but they were heavily guarded by ancient alien technology. The expedition managed to obtain only one of the Energy Elements. Dr. Wily was taken out of prison to help Dr. Light in creating Gamma. a powerful robot to face the alien machines. The two doctors create Gamma in a spaceship, and are accompanied by Mega Man and some security robots watchin over Wily. Sometime during or before Gamma's creation, Dr. Light created Rush to make company for Mega Man while the doctors are busy, and Dr. Wily also made a pet for him, Reggae. Unfortunately, Dr. Wily planned a escape and uses eight robots to attack the ship while he teleports to Earth and uses Doc Robots to steal the Energy Element.
Mega Man has trouble against the robots, and Reggae is destroyed by Break Man. who challenges Mega Man for a one on one fight, making the robots leave. During their battle, Dr. Light appears on a screen to contact Mega Man, and Break Man is distracted when he sees Light, being hit in the face. Dr. Light tells Mega Man that Rush is able to transform to help him, and he must use him to fly outside and stop the ship, as it is going to collide with the asteroid. As Break Man's mask falls, Light recognizes him as Proto Man. and Mega Man wonders if Dr. Light knows the red robot. Mega Man goes out and attempts to avoid the crash, but it is too much for him. Fortunately, Proto Man goes out and helps him by firing a powerful charge shot to change the ship's angle, and it slides roughly in the ground. This alerts the alien robots protecting the asteroid, many of them appearing to attack the ship and forcing Mega Man, Rush, and Dr. Light (in a space suit) to run away and hide. Gamma comes out from the ship and destroys the guardians, and Dr. Wily appears to tell Dr. Light about his plan, teleporting away with his robots, leaving Gamma to do the job.
Without a choice, Mega Man tries to stop Gamma, and Dr. Light tells him that he left a weak point on Gamma because he didn't completely trust on Wily. Despite knowing its weakness, Mega Man and Rush have trouble against the giant robot, but manages to defeat it with Proto Man's help. After repairing the spaceship, Dr. Light and Mega Man return home, with the two having a conversation while Light makes some repairs on Mega Man. Proto Man enters the damaged teleporter used by Wily, going to his hideout. Wily, angry with Gamma's defeat, orders his robots to attack Proto Man, who simply smiles as the story ends.Burning Wheel
Burning Wheel ( バーニングホイール. Bāningu Hoīru ? ) is a story from volume 1 based on Mega Man: Battle & Chase and Mega Man 7. taking place after the story "The Strongest Enemy to Date" from Mega Man Megamix.
A large bridge connecting Japan and the United States was recently completed, and to commemorate, a race of robots called "Battle & Chase" is held in the bridge. Roll decides to participate and Kalinka assists her. At first Mega Man didn't wanted to race, but Shade Man and Slash Man persuade him to do so by saying that Dr. Wily is going to enter the race. Other robots in the race include Auto. Guts Man. Ice Man. Bass. Quick Man. Shadow Man. Napalm Man and Spring Man.White Nightmare
White Nightmare ( 白い悪夢. Shiroi Akumu ? ) is a story from Mega Man Gigamix volume 2 based on Mega Man V and Mega Man 8. its events taking place after "Burning Wheel".
A powerful alien robot is after the evil Dr. Wily to destroy him, and he defeats anything that tries to stop him, including Bass and the Wily Numbers from Mega Man 2. 3 and 7 (excluding Shadow Man and Shade Man) in Wily's fortress. Wily and Shade Man escape the base in a Hogale. but despite the efforts of his robots, the ship is destroyed by the alien robot, along with Wily. However, the Wily in the Hogale is actually a decoy. The real Wily escaped from his base with Shadow Man and went to Dr. Light's laboratory to ask for help. When the alien robot arrived, Mega Man (with the Super Adapter ) and Dr. Light's robots managed to harm him, but suddenly hands appear around his body and he explodes, and nine robots appear from his body, the Stardroids led by Terra. Mega Man and Dr. Light's other robots are defeated by them and the laboratory is destroyed.Moon of Darkness
Moon of Darkness ( 暗黒の月. Ankoku no Tsuki ? ) is the continuation of White Nightmare.
The Stardroids spread around the world, attacking and defeating several robots, including the eight bosses from Mega Man 5 and Mega Man 6. Terra, in particular, is shown to be able to defeat over 100 robots without effort. Mega Man, Elec Man, Cut Man and Rush go after the Stardroids to stop them while Light and his other robots, along Wily and Shadow Man, stay in the ruined laboratory. Light's lab is suddenly attacked by Venus and Jupiter. and somewhere else, Mega Man and the others face Mercury. Saturn and Uranus. Terra summons Dark Moon. which flies to the sky and covers the Earth into darkness. Both groups have a rough battle against the Stardroids, and when Venus attempts to attack Light and Wily, Roll jumps in the front to protect them, but before Venus can do any harm, he is suddenly destroyed by a mysterious robot called Duo.Toward a Bright Tomorrow
Toward a Bright Tomorrow ( 光る明日へ. Hikaru Ashita e ? ) is the only story from volume 3 and the conclusion of Mega Man Gigamix, continuing where Moon of Darkness left off.
After defeating Venus, Duo fights against Jupiter, and he retreats. Meanwhile, Dr. Cossack's seven robots appear to help Mega Man's group, but for some reason they are out of control and attacks everyone present, and Uranus is destroyed when the seven attack him at the same time, which makes the other Stardroids retreat. When the seven Cossack Numbers harm Mega Man, they look confused and remove seven crystals from their bodies. Dr. Cossack appears with a helicopter and takes them to Dr. Light's lab, also taking the remains of the Mega Man 5 robots with him. The three doctors and their robots work together inside Big Eddie, repairing injured and broken robots. The Stradroids talk about their defeat partners and Terra takes Saturn's power, teleporting inside Big Eddie to attack. Terra teleports Duo to the other six Stardroids, where he is defeated by their combined attacks. Mega Man is fatally wounded, and Terra attacks everyone before leaving. When Shadow Man regains conscioussness, he sees that the robots from Mega Man 2, 3 and 7 that were in Wily's base appeared and are assisting them. In other place, Proto Man decides to fight against the Stardroids, despite being alone and injured. While Light and Wily are repairing Mega Man, Cossack explains to the robots about Duo and the seven Energy Elements that were with his robots. Bass snatches four Energy Crystals for himself and goes after the Stardroids with Treble Boost. and the remaining three crystal are given for Mega Man, Shadow Man and Ring Man. They use one of Wily's remaining skull rockets from the Mega Man Megamix story R Destruction Order to send the three to space, with Star Man protecting it with his barrier.
In space, Bass tries to attack Saturn, but all of his attacks are taken by his Black Hole. Angry, Bass takes away his four energy crystals and throws them at Saturn, blasting them afterwards, causing a powerful explosion that destroys Saturn. Ring Man has a tough battle against Pluto, but he manages to defeat him. Mercury, Mars and Neptune attack Shadow Man, but as the three are too much for him he retreats with a kawarimi, hiding into one abandoned station. Mega Man destroys Jupiter and goes after Terra. Inside the station Shadow Man finds Proto Man injured, and the three Stardroids appear. Shadow Man stabs Neptune and Mercury and throws himself in Earth's direction with them, apparently burning them when entering the atmosphere. Quick Man appears and rescues Shadow Man with the Mecha Dragon. but Mercury suddenly appears and punches through Shadow Man, taking his energy crystal. Mercury is finally destroyed by Quick Man, which appears to slice Mercury continuously at high speed, leaving him unable to regenerate himself. Proto Man stops a missile from Mars' head with his own buster, exploding both of them. Mega Man defeats Terra, and Sunstar (Sungod) emerges from Dark Moon for the final battle.Cast
List of characters introduced in Mega Man Gigamix. See Mega Man Megamix for returning characters.Wily Numbers
Fourteen of Dr. Wily's robots preparing to battle the alien robot in White Nightmare.Stardroids and related
Charlie Fish was born in Mount Kisco, New York, and has moved between New England and old England several times (he now lives in London). Since completing a law degree in 2002 he has done a variety of jobs, none of them connected to law - or, indeed, each other.
His interests (apart from writing) include scuba diving, voluntary work, and playing Scrabble for extremely high stakes. In one of his more successful games of Scrabble in February 2001, he won his beloved girlfriend - now wife - Emma Smith.
He is the editor of FICTION on the WEB, and he can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
A game of Scrabble has serious consequences.
- Genre: Crime, Humor
A frank account of the experiences of one man who found his perfect partner.
A young man finds himself in bed. with Cora.
Sometimes, popping out for a pint of milk is the worst thing a father can do.
- Length: 10 pages
- Genre: Fiction, Humor
Baggio discovers that becoming a philosopher isn’t as simple as he thought.
- Length: 12 pages
Fantasy, in the vein of Jean Auel, about a lost tribe who's future is threatened by the encroachment of modern man. Contains descriptions of violence.
- Length: 16 pages
‘Neither the old man nor Boga ever said more than was needed. And yet they understood each other perfectly.’
Over the course of a season, Boga and the old man work side by side on the sandbanks of the Paraná Delta, cutting reeds to sell to local basketweavers. But when the old man falls sick and dies, Boga abandons himself entirely to the river and the life of solitary drifting he has long yearned for.
Echoes of John Berger sound throughout the evocative prose of this great Argentinian writer. A twentieth-century classic, Southeaster is a central work in Haroldo Conti’s oeuvre.Praise for Southeaster
Zookeepers at Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo began a fascinating social experiment in 2010: They put a group of chimpanzees raised locally in the Netherlands together with a group of chimps raised in Scotland. This kind of chimpanzee-group mixing almost never occurs in the wild.
Like all chimpanzees, the two groups of chimps in the study had special grunts for certain types of food. which change based on their preferences. The Dutch chimps loved apples, and referred to the fruit using a high-pitched grunt, whereas the Scottish chimps disliked apples, and used a much lower-pitched grunt to describe the fruit.
But after three years of living with the Scottish chimps, the Dutch chimps did something that surprised the researchers: They started using the low-pitched grunt to refer to apples. The new grunts suggested that the Dutch group had learned the word from the Scottish chimps, according to the study, published today (Feb. 5) in the journal Current Biology. [Listen to chimps learning other groups' grunts ]
Besides humans, a number of other primates are capable of vocal communication. For example, vervet monkeys have alarm calls to warn of specific predators, such as eagles and leopards. And chimps' grunts share some similarities with human words, said study researcher Katie Slocombe, an evolutionary psychologist at the University of York in England.
But until now, scientists had considered this ability — to learn the names for objects in an environment from peers — unique to human speech, Slocombe said.
"Our study is the first one to show that chimps do have some control over the structure of these food grunts," Slocombe told Live Science. "When exposed to a different social culture, they can choose to shift the structure of their calls to conform and give a different grunt." The chimps changed their grunts independently of their food preferences, Slocombe added.
Other researchers praised the results, but didn't find them particularly surprising.
"This study is consistent with a number of relatively recent studies that have suggested that social learning plays a role in some chimpanzee vocalizations," said Jared Taglialatela, a biologist atKennesaw State University in Georgia who studies ape communication but was not involved in the current research.
For example, Taglialatela and his colleagues have found evidence that young chimps learn to make attention-getting sounds from their mothers.
Though the new findings suggest that learning plays a role in some chimp vocalizations, the researchers did not specifically test whether the calls were functionally referential, meaning that other chimps understood what the call, such as the grunt for "apple," meant, Taglialatela told Live Science. "You can test this by presenting calls to a chimpanzee and then, for example, seeing if they will go to the 'apple' tree," he said.
Nevertheless, Frans de Waal, a primatologistat the Yerkes National Primate Research Center at Emory University in Atlanta, who wasn't involved in this new study, called it "one of many findings we have lately showing how much of primate social life is culturally constructed."Editor's Recommendations
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